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VoIP Voice and Fax Signal Processing by Sivannarayana Nagireddi

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14.6 TONES DETECTION

In the detection of tones for fax and modem, three different families of tones are considered.

  • CNG pure fax tone at 1100 Hz
  • ANS family ANS, /ANS, ANSam, and /ANSam with 2100-Hz phase and amplitude modulations
  • V.21 FSK modulations

A summary on the fax and modem tones are given in Table 14.2. For complete specifications, refer to the ITU recommendations [ITU-T-V.8 (2000), ITU-T-V.25 (1996), ITU-T-G.168 (2004)] and RFC2833 [Schulzrinne and Petrack (2000)].

Table 14.2. Summary on Fax and Modem Tones and Parameters

image

14.6.1 CNG Fax Tone Detection

The CNG detection involves passing the samples through a band-pass filter (BPF) centered at 1100 Hz. A typical bandwidth of BPF is between 64 and 100 Hz. An output of BPF is envelope detected and checked for proper power levels, duration, and repetition. Power levels have to be calibrated usually with a μ-law sine wave treating an 8159 sine wave amplitude as +3.17-dBm power.

The accepted power level for CNG is wider in range. Based on power level, several signals could pass through a 1100-Hz centered BPF and appear as CNG detection. To avoid false detections, it is required to monitor out-of-band energy. To take care of this requirement, it is required to pass the input through band elimination or a notch filter centered at 1100 Hz. The power levels observed in the notch filter path act as a reference for out-of-band energy. ...

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