Chapter 11 contains checklists for managing multiple projects and programmes, and introduces portfolio management.
Sometimes it is helpful to break projects into smaller chunks, called phases, and to manage delivery by phase or sub-project.
Phases should be logically coherent pieces of work. They may have dependencies on other phases, but they should make sense to be managed independently. Breaking a project into phases can reduce risk and complexity, but too many phases can make it difficult to bring them back to one coherent outcome.
There are various possible reasons for breaking a project into phases, including: