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##### 1.3 NETWORK LAWS

Network laws or theorems help to analyse circuits in a much simpler way. In this section, we discuss some frequently used network laws and theorems, namely, Kirchoff’s laws, superposition theorem, and Thévenin and Norton theorems.

#### 1.3.1 Kirchoff's Laws

The two Kirchoff’s laws are Kirchoff’s voltage and Kirchoff’s current laws. Kirchoff’s voltage law (KVL) states that the sum of voltages between successive nodes in a closed path in a circuit is equal to zero. Kirchoff’s current law states that the algebraic sum of currents in all the branches that converge in a common node in a circuit is zero.

Kirchoff’s Voltage Law. Consider the circuit in Fig.1.3. The KVL equation for this circuit is:

or

FIGURE 1.3 A network having ...

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