You are previewing JavaScript: The Definitive Guide, 6th Edition.

JavaScript: The Definitive Guide, 6th Edition

Cover of JavaScript: The Definitive Guide, 6th Edition by David Flanagan Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. JavaScript: The Definitive Guide
  2. Dedication
  3. A Note Regarding Supplemental Files
  4. Preface
    1. Conventions Used in This Book
    2. Example Code
    3. Errata and How to Contact Us
    4. Acknowledgments
  5. 1. Introduction to JavaScript
    1. Core JavaScript
    2. Client-Side JavaScript
      1. Example: A JavaScript Loan Calculator
  6. I. Core JavaScript
    1. 2. Lexical Structure
      1. Character Set
      2. Comments
      3. Literals
      4. Identifiers and Reserved Words
      5. Optional Semicolons
    2. 3. Types, Values, and Variables
      1. Numbers
      2. Text
      3. Boolean Values
      4. null and undefined
      5. The Global Object
      6. Wrapper Objects
      7. Immutable Primitive Values and Mutable Object References
      8. Type Conversions
      9. Variable Declaration
      10. Variable Scope
    3. 4. Expressions and Operators
      1. Primary Expressions
      2. Object and Array Initializers
      3. Function Definition Expressions
      4. Property Access Expressions
      5. Invocation Expressions
      6. Object Creation Expressions
      7. Operator Overview
      8. Arithmetic Expressions
      9. Relational Expressions
      10. Logical Expressions
      11. Assignment Expressions
      12. Evaluation Expressions
      13. Miscellaneous Operators
    4. 5. Statements
      1. Expression Statements
      2. Compound and Empty Statements
      3. Declaration Statements
      4. Conditionals
      5. Loops
      6. Jumps
      7. Miscellaneous Statements
      8. Summary of JavaScript Statements
    5. 6. Objects
      1. Creating Objects
      2. Querying and Setting Properties
      3. Deleting Properties
      4. Testing Properties
      5. Enumerating Properties
      6. Property Getters and Setters
      7. Property Attributes
      8. Object Attributes
      9. Serializing Objects
      10. Object Methods
    6. 7. Arrays
      1. Creating Arrays
      2. Reading and Writing Array Elements
      3. Sparse Arrays
      4. Array Length
      5. Adding and Deleting Array Elements
      6. Iterating Arrays
      7. Multidimensional Arrays
      8. Array Methods
      9. ECMAScript 5 Array Methods
      10. Array Type
      11. Array-Like Objects
      12. Strings As Arrays
    7. 8. Functions
      1. Defining Functions
      2. Invoking Functions
      3. Function Arguments and Parameters
      4. Functions As Values
      5. Functions As Namespaces
      6. Closures
      7. Function Properties, Methods, and Constructor
      8. Functional Programming
    8. 9. Classes and Modules
      1. Classes and Prototypes
      2. Classes and Constructors
      3. Java-Style Classes in JavaScript
      4. Augmenting Classes
      5. Classes and Types
      6. Object-Oriented Techniques in JavaScript
      7. Subclasses
      8. Classes in ECMAScript 5
      9. Modules
    9. 10. Pattern Matching with Regular Expressions
      1. Defining Regular Expressions
      2. String Methods for Pattern Matching
      3. The RegExp Object
    10. 11. JavaScript Subsets and Extensions
      1. JavaScript Subsets
      2. Constants and Scoped Variables
      3. Destructuring Assignment
      4. Iteration
      5. Shorthand Functions
      6. Multiple Catch Clauses
      7. E4X: ECMAScript for XML
    11. 12. Server-Side JavaScript
      1. Scripting Java with Rhino
      2. Asynchronous I/O with Node
  7. II. Client-Side JavaScript
    1. 13. JavaScript in Web Browsers
      1. Client-Side JavaScript
      2. Embedding JavaScript in HTML
      3. Execution of JavaScript Programs
      4. Compatibility and Interoperability
      5. Accessibility
      6. Security
      7. Client-Side Frameworks
    2. 14. The Window Object
      1. Timers
      2. Browser Location and Navigation
      3. Browsing History
      4. Browser and Screen Information
      5. Dialog Boxes
      6. Error Handling
      7. Document Elements As Window Properties
      8. Multiple Windows and Frames
    3. 15. Scripting Documents
      1. Overview of the DOM
      2. Selecting Document Elements
      3. Document Structure and Traversal
      4. Attributes
      5. Element Content
      6. Creating, Inserting, and Deleting Nodes
      7. Example: Generating a Table of Contents
      8. Document and Element Geometry and Scrolling
      9. HTML Forms
      10. Other Document Features
    4. 16. Scripting CSS
      1. Overview of CSS
      2. Important CSS Properties
      3. Scripting Inline Styles
      4. Querying Computed Styles
      5. Scripting CSS Classes
      6. Scripting Stylesheets
    5. 17. Handling Events
      1. Types of Events
      2. Registering Event Handlers
      3. Event Handler Invocation
      4. Document Load Events
      5. Mouse Events
      6. Mousewheel Events
      7. Drag and Drop Events
      8. Text Events
      9. Keyboard Events
    6. 18. Scripted HTTP
      1. Using XMLHttpRequest
      2. HTTP by <script>: JSONP
      3. Comet with Server-Sent Events
    7. 19. The jQuery Library
      1. jQuery Basics
      2. jQuery Getters and Setters
      3. Altering Document Structure
      4. Handling Events with jQuery
      5. Animated Effects
      6. Ajax with jQuery
      7. Utility Functions
      8. jQuery Selectors and Selection Methods
      9. Extending jQuery with Plug-ins
      10. The jQuery UI Library
    8. 20. Client-Side Storage
      1. localStorage and sessionStorage
      2. Cookies
      3. IE userData Persistence
      4. Application Storage and Offline Webapps
    9. 21. Scripted Media and Graphics
      1. Scripting Images
      2. Scripting Audio and Video
      3. SVG: Scalable Vector Graphics
      4. Graphics in a <canvas>
    10. 22. HTML5 APIs
      1. Geolocation
      2. History Management
      3. Cross-Origin Messaging
      4. Web Workers
      5. Typed Arrays and ArrayBuffers
      6. Blobs
      7. The Filesystem API
      8. Client-Side Databases
      9. Web Sockets
  8. III. Core JavaScript Reference
    1. I. Core JavaScript Reference
      1. arguments[ ]
      2. Arguments
      3. Arguments.callee
      4. Arguments.length
      5. Array
      6. Array.concat()
      7. Array.every()
      8. Array.filter()
      9. Array.forEach()
      10. Array.indexOf()
      11. Array.join()
      12. Array.lastIndexOf()
      13. Array.length
      14. Array.map()
      15. Array.pop()
      16. Array.push()
      17. Array.reduce()
      18. Array.reduceRight()
      19. Array.reverse()
      20. Array.shift()
      21. Array.slice()
      22. Array.some()
      23. Array.sort()
      24. Array.splice()
      25. Array.toLocaleString()
      26. Array.toString()
      27. Array.unshift()
      28. Boolean
      29. Boolean.toString()
      30. Boolean.valueOf()
      31. Date
      32. Date.getDate()
      33. Date.getDay()
      34. Date.getFullYear()
      35. Date.getHours()
      36. Date.getMilliseconds()
      37. Date.getMinutes()
      38. Date.getMonth()
      39. Date.getSeconds()
      40. Date.getTime()
      41. Date.getTimezoneOffset()
      42. Date.getUTCDate()
      43. Date.getUTCDay()
      44. Date.getUTCFullYear()
      45. Date.getUTCHours()
      46. Date.getUTCMilliseconds()
      47. Date.getUTCMinutes()
      48. Date.getUTCMonth()
      49. Date.getUTCSeconds()
      50. Date.getYear()
      51. Date.now()
      52. Date.parse()
      53. Date.setDate()
      54. Date.setFullYear()
      55. Date.setHours()
      56. Date.setMilliseconds()
      57. Date.setMinutes()
      58. Date.setMonth()
      59. Date.setSeconds()
      60. Date.setTime()
      61. Date.setUTCDate()
      62. Date.setUTCFullYear()
      63. Date.setUTCHours()
      64. Date.setUTCMilliseconds()
      65. Date.setUTCMinutes()
      66. Date.setUTCMonth()
      67. Date.setUTCSeconds()
      68. Date.setYear()
      69. Date.toDateString()
      70. Date.toGMTString()
      71. Date.toISOString()
      72. Date.toJSON
      73. Date.toLocaleDateString()
      74. Date.toLocaleString()
      75. Date.toLocaleTimeString()
      76. Date.toString()
      77. Date.toTimeString()
      78. Date.toUTCString()
      79. Date.UTC()
      80. Date.valueOf()
      81. decodeURI()
      82. decodeURIComponent()
      83. encodeURI()
      84. encodeURIComponent()
      85. Error
      86. Error.message
      87. Error.name
      88. Error.toString()
      89. escape()
      90. eval()
      91. EvalError
      92. Function
      93. Function.apply()
      94. Function.arguments[]
      95. Function.bind()
      96. Function.call()
      97. Function.caller
      98. Function.length
      99. Function.prototype
      100. Function.toString()
      101. Global
      102. Infinity
      103. isFinite()
      104. isNaN()
      105. JSON
      106. JSON.parse()
      107. JSON.stringify()
      108. Math
      109. Math.abs()
      110. Math.acos()
      111. Math.asin()
      112. Math.atan()
      113. Math.atan2()
      114. Math.ceil()
      115. Math.cos()
      116. Math.E
      117. Math.exp()
      118. Math.floor()
      119. Math.LN10
      120. Math.LN2
      121. Math.log()
      122. Math.LOG10E
      123. Math.LOG2E
      124. Math.max()
      125. Math.min()
      126. Math.PI
      127. Math.pow()
      128. Math.random()
      129. Math.round()
      130. Math.sin()
      131. Math.sqrt()
      132. Math.SQRT1_2
      133. Math.SQRT2
      134. Math.tan()
      135. NaN
      136. Number
      137. Number.MAX_VALUE
      138. Number.MIN_VALUE
      139. Number.NaN
      140. Number.NEGATIVE_INFINITY
      141. Number.POSITIVE_INFINITY
      142. Number.toExponential()
      143. Number.toFixed()
      144. Number.toLocaleString()
      145. Number.toPrecision()
      146. Number.toString()
      147. Number.valueOf()
      148. Object
      149. Object.constructor
      150. Object.create()
      151. Object.defineProperties()
      152. Object.defineProperty()
      153. Object.freeze()
      154. Object.getOwnPropertyDescriptor()
      155. Object.getOwnPropertyNames()
      156. Object.getPrototypeOf()
      157. Object.hasOwnProperty()
      158. Object.isExtensible()
      159. Object.isFrozen()
      160. Object.isPrototypeOf()
      161. Object.isSealed()
      162. Object.keys()
      163. Object.preventExtensions()
      164. Object.propertyIsEnumerable()
      165. Object.seal()
      166. Object.toLocaleString()
      167. Object.toString()
      168. Object.valueOf()
      169. parseFloat()
      170. parseInt()
      171. RangeError
      172. ReferenceError
      173. RegExp
      174. RegExp.exec()
      175. RegExp.global
      176. RegExp.ignoreCase
      177. RegExp.lastIndex
      178. RegExp.source
      179. RegExp.test()
      180. RegExp.toString()
      181. String
      182. String.charAt()
      183. String.charCodeAt()
      184. String.concat()
      185. String.fromCharCode()
      186. String.indexOf()
      187. String.lastIndexOf()
      188. String.length
      189. String.localeCompare()
      190. String.match()
      191. String.replace()
      192. String.search()
      193. String.slice()
      194. String.split()
      195. String.substr()
      196. String.substring()
      197. String.toLocaleLowerCase()
      198. String.toLocaleUpperCase()
      199. String.toLowerCase()
      200. String.toString()
      201. String.toUpperCase()
      202. String.trim()
      203. String.valueOf()
      204. SyntaxError
      205. TypeError
      206. undefined
      207. unescape()
      208. URIError
  9. IV. Client-Side JavaScript Reference
    1. II. Client-Side JavaScript Reference
      1. ApplicationCache
      2. ArrayBuffer
      3. ArrayBufferView
      4. Attr
      5. Audio
      6. BeforeUnloadEvent
      7. Blob
      8. BlobBuilder
      9. Button
      10. Canvas
      11. CanvasGradient
      12. CanvasPattern
      13. CanvasRenderingContext2D
      14. ClientRect
      15. CloseEvent
      16. Comment
      17. Console
      18. ConsoleCommandLine
      19. CSS2Properties
      20. CSSRule
      21. CSSStyleDeclaration
      22. CSSStyleSheet
      23. DataTransfer
      24. DataView
      25. Document
      26. DocumentFragment
      27. DocumentType
      28. DOMException
      29. DOMImplementation
      30. DOMSettableTokenList
      31. DOMTokenList
      32. Element
      33. ErrorEvent
      34. Event
      35. EventSource
      36. EventTarget
      37. FieldSet
      38. File
      39. FileError
      40. FileReader
      41. FileReaderSync
      42. Form
      43. FormControl
      44. FormData
      45. FormValidity
      46. Geocoordinates
      47. Geolocation
      48. GeolocationError
      49. Geoposition
      50. HashChangeEvent
      51. History
      52. HTMLCollection
      53. HTMLDocument
      54. HTMLElement
      55. HTMLFormControlsCollection
      56. HTMLOptionsCollection
      57. IFrame
      58. Image
      59. ImageData
      60. Input
      61. jQuery
      62. KeyEvent
      63. Label
      64. Link
      65. Location
      66. MediaElement
      67. MediaError
      68. MessageChannel
      69. MessageEvent
      70. MessagePort
      71. Meter
      72. MouseEvent
      73. Navigator
      74. Node
      75. NodeList
      76. Option
      77. Output
      78. PageTransitionEvent
      79. PopStateEvent
      80. ProcessingInstruction
      81. Progress
      82. ProgressEvent
      83. Screen
      84. Script
      85. Select
      86. Storage
      87. StorageEvent
      88. Style
      89. Table
      90. TableCell
      91. TableRow
      92. TableSection
      93. Text
      94. TextArea
      95. TextMetrics
      96. TimeRanges
      97. TypedArray
      98. URL
      99. Video
      100. WebSocket
      101. Window
      102. Worker
      103. WorkerGlobalScope
      104. WorkerLocation
      105. WorkerNavigator
      106. XMLHttpRequest
      107. XMLHttpRequestUpload
  10. Index
  11. About the Author
  12. Colophon
  13. Copyright
O'Reilly logo

Operator Overview

Operators are used for JavaScript’s arithmetic expressions, comparison expressions, logical expressions, assignment expressions, and more. Table 4-1 summarizes the operators and serves as a convenient reference.

Note that most operators are represented by punctuation characters such as + and =. Some, however, are represented by keywords such as delete and instanceof. Keyword operators are regular operators, just like those expressed with punctuation; they simply have a less succinct syntax.

Table 4-1 is organized by operator precedence. The operators listed first have higher precedence than those listed last. Operators separated by a horizontal line have different precedence levels. The column labeled A gives the operator associativity, which can be L (left-to-right) or R (right-to-left), and the column N specifies the number of operands. The column labeled Types lists the expected types of the operands and (after the symbol) the result type for the operator. The subsections that follow the table explain the concepts of precedence, associativity, and operand type. The operators themselves are individually documented following that discussion.

Table 4-1. JavaScript operators

OperatorOperationANTypes
++Pre- or post-incrementR1lvalnum
--Pre- or post-decrementR1lvalnum
-Negate numberR1numnum
+Convert to numberR1numnum
~Invert bitsR1intint
!Invert boolean valueR1boolbool
deleteRemove a propertyR1lvalbool
typeofDetermine type of operandR1anystr
voidReturn undefined valueR1anyundef
*, /, %Multiply, divide, remainderL2num,numnum
+, -Add, subtractL2num,numnum
+Concatenate stringsL2str,strstr
<<Shift leftL2int,intint
>>Shift right with sign extensionL2int,intint
>>>Shift right with zero extensionL2int,intint
<, <=,>, >=Compare in numeric orderL2num,numbool
<, <=,>, >=Compare in alphabetic orderL2str,strbool
instanceofTest object classL2obj,funcbool
inTest whether property existsL2str,objbool
==Test for equalityL2any,anybool
!=Test for inequalityL2any,anybool
===Test for strict equalityL2any,anybool
!==Test for strict inequalityL2any,anybool
&Compute bitwise ANDL2int,intint
^Compute bitwise XORL2int,intint
|Compute bitwise ORL2int,intint
&&Compute logical ANDL2any,anyany
||Compute logical ORL2any,anyany
?:Choose 2nd or 3rd operandR3bool,any,anyany
=Assign to a variable or propertyR2lval,anyany
*=, /=, %=, +=,Operate and assignR2lval,anyany
-=, &=, ^=, |=,    
<<=, >>=, >>>=    
,Discard 1st operand, return secondL2any,anyany

Number of Operands

Operators can be categorized based on the number of operands they expect (their arity). Most JavaScript operators, like the * multiplication operator, are binary operators that combine two expressions into a single, more complex expression. That is, they expect two operands. JavaScript also supports a number of unary operators, which convert a single expression into a single, more complex expression. The operator in the expression −x is a unary operator that performs the operation of negation on the operand x. Finally, JavaScript supports one ternary operator, the conditional operator ?:, which combines three expressions into a single expression.

Operand and Result Type

Some operators work on values of any type, but most expect their operands to be of a specific type, and most operators return (or evaluate to) a value of a specific type. The Types column in Table 4-1 specifies operand types (before the arrow) and result type (after the arrow) for the operators.

JavaScript operators usually convert the type (see Type Conversions) of their operands as needed. The multiplication operator * expects numeric operands, but the expression "3" * "5" is legal because JavaScript can convert the operands to numbers. The value of this expression is the number 15, not the string “15”, of course. Remember also that every JavaScript value is either “truthy” or “falsy,” so operators that expect boolean operands will work with an operand of any type.

Some operators behave differently depending on the type of the operands used with them. Most notably, the + operator adds numeric operands but concatenates string operands. Similarly, the comparison operators such as < perform comparison in numerical or alphabetical order depending on the type of the operands. The descriptions of individual operators explain their type-dependencies and specify what type conversions they perform.

Lvalues

Notice that the assignment operators and a few of the other operators listed in Table 4-1 expect an operand of type lval. lvalue is a historical term that means “an expression that can legally appear on the left side of an assignment expression.” In JavaScript, variables, properties of objects, and elements of arrays are lvalues. The ECMAScript specification allows built-in functions to return lvalues but does not define any functions that behave that way.

Operator Side Effects

Evaluating a simple expression like 2 * 3 never affects the state of your program, and any future computation your program performs will be unaffected by that evaluation. Some expressions, however, have side effects, and their evaluation may affect the result of future evaluations. The assignment operators are the most obvious example: if you assign a value to a variable or property, that changes the value of any expression that uses that variable or property. The ++ and -- increment and decrement operators are similar, since they perform an implicit assignment. The delete operator also has side effects: deleting a property is like (but not the same as) assigning undefined to the property.

No other JavaScript operators have side effects, but function invocation and object creation expressions will have side effects if any of the operators used in the function or constructor body have side effects.

Operator Precedence

The operators listed in Table 4-1 are arranged in order from high precedence to low precedence, with horizontal lines separating groups of operators at the same precedence level. Operator precedence controls the order in which operations are performed. Operators with higher precedence (nearer the top of the table) are performed before those with lower precedence (nearer to the bottom).

Consider the following expression:

w = x + y*z;

The multiplication operator * has a higher precedence than the addition operator +, so the multiplication is performed before the addition. Furthermore, the assignment operator = has the lowest precedence, so the assignment is performed after all the operations on the right side are completed.

Operator precedence can be overridden with the explicit use of parentheses. To force the addition in the previous example to be performed first, write:

w = (x + y)*z;

Note that property access and invocation expressions have higher precedence than any of the operators listed in Table 4-1. Consider this expression:

typeof my.functions[x](y)

Although typeof is one of the highest-priority operators, the typeof operation is performed on the result of the two property accesses and the function invocation.

In practice, if you are at all unsure about the precedence of your operators, the simplest thing to do is to use parentheses to make the evaluation order explicit. The rules that are important to know are these: multiplication and division are performed before addition and subtraction, and assignment has very low precedence and is almost always performed last.

Operator Associativity

In Table 4-1, the column labeled A specifies the associativity of the operator. A value of L specifies left-to-right associativity, and a value of R specifies right-to-left associativity. The associativity of an operator specifies the order in which operations of the same precedence are performed. Left-to-right associativity means that operations are performed from left to right. For example, the subtraction operator has left-to-right associativity, so:

w = x - y - z;

is the same as:

w = ((x - y) - z);

On the other hand, the following expressions:

x = ~-y;
w = x = y = z;
q = a?b:c?d:e?f:g;

are equivalent to:

x = ~(-y); w = (x = (y = z)); q =
a?b:(c?d:(e?f:g));

because the unary, assignment, and ternary conditional operators have right-to-left associativity.

Order of Evaluation

Operator precedence and associativity specify the order in which operations are performed in a complex expression, but they do not specify the order in which the subexpressions are evaluated. JavaScript always evaluates expressions in strictly left-to-right order. In the expression w=x+y*z, for example, the subexpression w is evaluated first, followed by x, y, and z. Then the values of y and z are multiplied, added to the value of x, and assigned to the variable or property specified by expression w. Adding parentheses to the expressions can change the relative order of the multiplication, addition, and assignment, but not the left-to-right order of evaluation.

Order of evaluation only makes a difference if any of the expressions being evaluated has side effects that affect the value of another expression. If expression x increments a variable that is used by expression z, then the fact that x is evaluated before z is important.

The best content for your career. Discover unlimited learning on demand for around $1/day.