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Internal Marketing by Mohammed Rafiq, Pervaiz K. Ahmed

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chapter two

Models of internalmarketing: how internalmarketing works

Introduction

Despite the plethora of research, an examination of the literature shows that essentially there are two models of how IM works: one based on the work of Berry's concept of ‘employees as customers’ and the other based on Grönroos’ idea of ‘customer mindedness’ and interactive marketing1.

In the existing literature, most authors do not clearly distinguish between Berry's and Grönroos’ models of IM. The major reason for this is the fact that both Berry and Grönroos do not spell out the exact components of their models and how they are connected with each other. An examination of Berry's and Grönroos’ work (as well as their collaborators) on IM shows that both ...

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