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3.9 GAUSSIAN ELIMINATION

Let A = (ai,j be an n × n matrix and x = (x1, x2,…, xn), y = (y1, y2,…, yn) be n-vectors, all with real number entries satisfying

If det(A) ≠ 0, then for every y, the linear system of Equations (3.20) has a unique solution x,

Gaussian elimination is a process in which transformations are applied to an invertible matrix A to produce the identity matrix I and thereby obtain the solution for x in Equation (3.20).

3.9.1 Elementary Row and Column Matrix Transformations

1. Rr,s(v) (r ≠ s) is the n × n matrix equal to the identity matrix, except that the element in position (r, s) of Rr,s(v) is v. For example when n = 4

If

then

Premultiplication of A by Rr, s(v) replaces the rth row of A by the sum of

• v times the sth row of A and
• The rth row of A.

The inverse of Rr, s(v) is Rr, s(− v).

2. Cr, s(v) (r ≠ s) is the n × n matrix, which is equal to the identity matrix except that the element in position (r, s) of Cr,s(v) is v. For example, when n = 4

If

then

Postmultiplication ...

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