For tables of numeric values, see Appendix 5.
Exponential function ex (Fig. 545)
Natural logarithm (Fig. 546)
ln x is the inverse of ex, and elnx = x, e−ln x = eln (1/x) = 1/x.
Logarithm of base ten log10x or simply log x
log x is the inverse of 10x, and 10logx = x, 10−log x = 1/x.
sin x is odd, sin (−x) = −sin x, and cos x is even, cos (−x) = cos x.
Tangent, cotangent, ...