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X Window System User's Guide for X11 R3 and R4 of the X Window System

Book Description

The X Window System User's Guide orients the new user to window system concepts and provides detailed tutorials for many client programs, including the xterm terminal emulator and window managers. Building on this basic knowledge, later chapters explain how to customize the X environment and provide sample configurations.

This popular manual is available in two editions, one for users of the MIT software, one for users of Motif. The Standard Edition uses the twm manager in most examples and illustrations. Revised and updated for X11 Release 5. Contents include:

  • Starting the system and opening windows.

  • Using the xterm terminal emulator and window managers.

  • Most standard release clients, including programs for graphics, printing, font manipulation, window/display information, removing windows, as well as several "desktop" utilities.

  • Customizing the window manager, keyboard, display, and certain basic features of any client program.

  • Using and customizing the mwm window manager, for those using the OSF/Motif graphical user interface.

  • System administration tasks, including managing fonts, starting X automatically, and using the display manager, xdm, to run X on a single or multiple display.

  • Table of Contents

    1. Coverpage
    2. Titlepage
    3. Copyright
    4. Table of Contents
    5. Figures
    6. Examples
    7. Tables
    8. Preface
      1. Assumptions
      2. Organization
      3. Bulk Sales Information
      4. xshowfonts.c
      5. Acknowlegements
      6. Font and Character Conventions
    9. PART ONE: Using X
      1. 1 An Introduction to the X Window System
        1. Anatomy of an X Display
        2. X Architecture Overview
        3. The X Display Server
        4. Clients
          1. The Window Manager
          2. The xterm Terminal Emulator
          3. The Display Manager
          4. Other X Clients
          5. Customizing Clients
      2. 2 Getting Started
        1. If X is Being Started Automatically
        2. Starting X Manually
          1. Starting the First xterm Window
          2. Bringing Up the Window Manager
        3. Starting a Second xterm Window
        4. Exiting from an xterm Window
        5. Special Keys
        6. How a Client Looks and Behaves: Application Defaults
        7. Starting Other Clients
        8. Running a Client on Another Machine
        9. Where to Go From Here
      3. 3 Using the twm Window Manager
        1. Starting the Window Manager
        2. Titlebars
        3. The Twm Menu
          1. Displaying Windows as Icons
          2. Resizing Windows
          3. Moving Windows and Icons
          4. Shuffling the Window Stack: Raise and Lower
            1. Raising Windows (bringing in front of others)
            2. Lowering Windows (sending behind others)
          5. Changing Keyboard Focus
          6. Removing a Window: Delete and Kill
          7. Restarting the Window Manager
          8. Exiting the Window Manager
        4. Button Control of Window Manager Functions
        5. Customizing twm
        6. Some of My Keystrokes are Missing
      4. 4 The xterm Terminal Emulator
        1. The Release 4 xterm Menus
          1. The xterm Menus at a Glance
          2. The Main Options Menu
          3. VT Options Menu
          4. VT Fonts Menu
          5. Tek Options Menu
        2. Using the Scroll bar
        3. Copying and Pasting Text Selections
          1. Selecting Text to Copy
          2. Pasting Text Selections
        4. Manipulating Text Selections
          1. Copying and Pasting between Release 2 and 3 Clients: xcutsel
          2. Saving Multiple Selections: xclipboard (Release 4 Version)
            1. Problems with Large Selections
            2. Editing Text Saved in the xclipboard
            3. Release 3 xclipboard
        5. Terminal Emulation and the xterm Terminal Type
        6. Resizing an xterm Window
        7. Running a Program in a Temporary xterm Window
      5. 5 Font Specification
        1. Font Naming Conventions
          1. Font Families
          2. Stroke Weight and Slant
          3. Font Sizes
          4. Other Information in the Font Name
        2. Font Name Wildcarding
        3. The Font Search Path
          1. The fonts.dir Files
        4. Font Name Aliasing
          1. Making the Server Aware of Aliases
        5. Utilities for Displaying Information about Fonts
          1. The Font Displayer: xfd
            1. Release 3 xfd
          2. Previewing and Selecting Fonts: xfontsel
            1. Previewing Fonts with the xfontsel Menus
            2. Selecting a Font Name
        6. Changing Fonts in xterm Windows
          1. The Great Escape
          2. The Selection Menu Item
        7. Release 2 versus Subsequent Release Fonts
          1. Font Specification in Release 2
      6. 6 Graphics Utilities
        1. Creating Icons and Other Bitmaps
          1. Bitmap Editing Commands
            1. Pointer Commands
            2. Bitmap Command Boxes
            3. Acting on the Entire Grid: Clear All, Set All, Invert All
            4. Acting on an Area: Clear Area, Set Area, Invert Area
            5. Copy Area, Move Area, Overlay Area
            6. Drawing: Line, Circle, Filled Circle
            7. Filling in a Shape: Flood Fill
            8. Hot Spots: Set Hot Spot, Clear Hot Spot
            9. Saving and Quitting: Write Output, Quit
          2. Creating a Bitmap from a Cursor
          3. Magnifying Portions of the Screen: xmag
            1. Quitting xmag
            2. What xmag Shows You
            3. Dynamically Choosing a Different Source Area
      7. 7 Other Clients
        1. Desk Accessories
          1. Clock Programs: xclock and oclock
          2. A Scientific Calculator: xcalc
            1. Terminating the calculator
          3. Mail Notification Client: xbiff
          4. Monitoring System Load Average: xload
          5. Browsing Reference Pages: xman
            1. Release 3 xman
        2. Printing Utilities: xwd. xpr, xdpr
        3. Killing a Client Window with xkill
          1. Problems with Killing a Client
        4. Window and Display Information Clients
          1. Displaying Information about a Window: xwininfo
          2. Listing the Window Tree: xlswins
          3. Listing the Currently Running Clients: xlsclients
          4. Generating Information about the Display: xdpyinfo
        5. User-contributed Clients
        6. X Toolkit Applications
          1. Dialog Boxes and Command Buttons
          2. Scroll bars
          3. Selecting Information for Copying and Pasting
          4. Vertical Panes
          5. Viewports
          6. Text Editing Widget
    10. PART TWO: Customizing X
      1. 8 Command Line Options
        1. Which Display to Run On
        2. Title and Name
        3. Window Geometry
        4. Border Width
        5. Color Specification
          1. The rgb.txt File
          2. Release 4 Color Names
          3. Release 3 Color Names
          4. Alternative Release 4 Color Databases
          5. Hexadecimal Color Specification
            1. The RGB Color Model
            2. How Many Colors are Available?
        6. Starting a Client Window as an Icon
        7. Specifying Fonts on the Command Line
        8. Reverse Video
      2. 9 Setting Resources
        1. Resource Naming Syntax
          1. Syntax of Toolkit Client Resources
          2. Tight Bindings and Loose Bindings
          3. Instances and Classes
          4. Precedence Rules for Resource Specification
          5. Some Common Resources
        2. Event Translations
          1. The Syntax of Event Translations
            1. xterm Translations to Use xclipboard
        3. How to Set Resources
          1. A Sample Resources File
          2. Specifying Resources from the Command Line
            1. The –xrm Option
            2. The –name Option
        4. Setting Resources with xrdb
          1. Querying the Resource Database
          2. Loading New Values into the Resource Database
          3. Saving Active Resource Definitions in a File
          4. Removing Resource Definitions
          5. Listing the Current Resources for a Client: appres
          6. Other Sources of Resource Definition
      3. 10 Customizing the twm Window Manager
        1. Setting .twmrc Variables
        2. Button/Key Bindings
          1. Pointer Buttons
          2. Keys
          3. Context
          4. Function Names
          5. Action
        3. Defining Menus
          1. Submenus
          2. Executing System Commands from a Menu
          3. Color Menus
        4. A Complete Revamp of twm
      4. 11 Setup Clients
        1. xset: Setting Display and Keyboard Preferences
          1. Keyboard Bell
          2. Bug Compatibility Mode
          3. Keyclick Volume
          4. Enabling or Disabling Auto-repeat
          5. Changing or Rehashing the Font Path
          6. Keyboard LEDs
          7. Pointer Acceleration
          8. Screen Saver
          9. Color Definition
          10. Help with xset Options
        2. xsetroot: Setting Root Window Characteristics
          1. Setting Root Window Patterns
          2. Foreground, Background Color and Reverse Video
          3. Changing the Root Window Pointer
        3. xmodmap: Modifier Key and Pointer Customization
          1. Keycodes and Keysyms
          2. Procedure to Map Modifier Keys
          3. Displaying the Current Modifier Key Map
          4. Detennining the Default Key Mappings
          5. Matching Keysyms with Physical Keys Using xev
          6. Changing the Map with xmodmap
            1. Expressions to Change the Key Map
            2. Key Mapping Examples
          7. Displaying and Changing the Pointer Map
    11. PART THREE: Client Reference Pages
    12. PART FOUR: Appendices
      1. A System Management
        1. Including X in Your Search Path
        2. Setting the Terminal Type
        3. A Startup Shell Script
          1. What Should Go in the Script
        4. Starting X
          1. Starting X with the Display Manager, xdm (Release 4)
            1. Getting Started with xdm on a Single Display
            2. Setting Up the Configuration File and Other Special Files
            3. The Standard Login Session
          2. Customizing xdm
            1. The Xservers File
            2. The Xsession File and .xsession Scripts
            3. The Xresources File
            4. The Error Log File
            5. The xdm-pid File (Release 4 Only)
            6. X startup and Xreset
            7. Security and the authorize Resource (Release 4 Only)
          3. Stopping xdm and the Server
          4. X Terminals and the XDM Control Protocol (Release 4)
          5. Release 3 xdm
          6. Release 3 Special Files and the Config File
          7. Customizing the Release 3 xdm
            1. Managing Multiple Displays: the Release 3 Xservers File
            2. Release 3 .xsession Scripts
            3. Release 3 Xresources File
            4. Release 3 X startup and X reset
          8. Starting X with xinit
          9. An Older Method of Starting X: /etc/ttys
        5. Server Access Control
          1. Host-based Access and the xhost Client
          2. User-based Access: xdm and the .Xauthority File (Release 4)
        6. Font Management
        7. Console Messages
        8. Log Files
        9. Changing the Color Name Database
      2. B The uwm Window Manager
        1. Starting the Window Manager
        2. The WindowOps Menu
          1. Creating New Terminal Windows
      3. C The OSF/Motif Window Manager
        1. Getting Started with mwm
        2. Starting mwm
        3. Selecting the Window to Receive Input
        4. Manipulating Windows with the mwm Window Frame
          1. Moving a Window: The Title Area
          2. Minimizing (lconifying) and Maximizing a Window
            1. The Minimize Button
            2. The Maximize Button
          3. Raising a Window
          4. Resizing a Window
          5. The Window Menu Button: Display a Menu or Close the Window
          6. Manipulating Windows Using the Window Menu
            1. Changing the Window Location: Move
            2. Resizing the Window: Size
            3. Iconifying the Window: Minimize
            4. Changing to the Maximum Size: Maximize
            5. Moving a Window to the Bottom of the Stack: Lower
            6. Removing a Window: Close
            7. Restoring a Maximized Window or an Icon: Restore
        5. Manipulating Icons
          1. Manipulating Icons Using the Window Menu
        6. The Root Menu
        7. Customizing mwm
          1. Activating Changes to the Window Manager
          2. The system.mwmrc File
            1. mwm Functions
          3. Menu Specifications
          4. Key Bindings
          5. Button Bindings
          6. Customizing the Root Menu
          7. Creating New Menus
          8. Cascading Menus
        8. Setting mwm Resources
          1. Component Appearance Resources
          2. mwm-Specific Appearance and Behavior Resources
          3. Client-Specific Resources
          4. Setting the Focus Policy
          5. Using an Icon Box
      4. D Standard Cursors
      5. E Release 3 and 4 Standard Fonts
      6. F xterm Control Sequences
        1. xterm Control Sequences
          1. Definitions
          2. VT102 Mode
          3. Tektronix 4014 Mode
      7. G Standard Bitmaps
      8. H Translation Table Syntax
        1. Event Types and Modifiers
          1. Detail Field
          2. Modifiers
          3. Complex Translation Examples
      9. Glossary
      10. Index