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X-Ray Line Profile Analysis in Materials Science

Book Description

X-ray line profile analysis is an effective and non-destructive method for the characterization of the microstructure in crystalline materials. Supporting research in the area of x-ray line profile analysis is necessary in promoting further developments in this field. X-Ray Line Profile Analysis in Materials Science aims to synthesize the existing knowledge of the theory, methodology, and applications of x-ray line profile analysis in real-world settings. This publication presents both the theoretical background and practical implementation of x-ray line profile analysis and serves as a reference source for engineers in various disciplines as well as scholars and upper-level students.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Preface
    1. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
  5. Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Kinematical X-Ray Scattering Theory
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE INTENSITY SCATTERED BY A CRYSTAL
    4. CORRELATION BETWEEN THE CRYSTAL LATTICE PLANES AND THE RECIPROCAL LATTICE VECTORS
    5. EWALD CONSTRUCTION
    6. BRAGG’S LAW
    7. CONCLUSION
  6. Chapter 2: Crystallite Size Broadening of Diffraction Line Profiles
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. SIZE BROADENING OF A SMALL CRYSTAL
    4. BERTAUT’S THEOREM
    5. RELATION BETWEEN LINE PROFILE AND COLUMN LENGTH DISTRIBUTION
    6. PEAK PROFILE FOR SPHERICAL CRYSTALLITES WITH DIFFERENT SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS
    7. THE EFFECT OF ANISOTROPIC SHAPE OF CRYSTALLITES
    8. CONCLUSION
  7. Chapter 3: Strain Broadening of X-Ray Diffraction Peaks
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. GENERAL EFFECT OF LATTICE DISTORTIONS ON LINE PROFILES
    4. STRAIN BROADENING CAUSED BY DISLOCATIONS
    5. AVERAGE DISLOCATION CONTRAST FACTORS FOR CUBIC CRYSTALS
    6. AVERAGE DISLOCATION CONTRAST FACTORS FOR HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS
    7. AVERAGE DISLOCATION CONTRAST FACTORS FOR ORTHORHOMBIC CRYSTALS
    8. ASYMPTOTIC SHAPE OF THE LINE PROFILE CAUSED BY A POLARISED DISLOCATION DISTRIBUTION
    9. EFFECT OF TRIPLE JUNCTIONS AND PARTICLE WELDING ON LINE PROFILES
    10. EFFECT OF SURFACE RELAXATION IN NANOPARTICLES ON LINE PROFILES
    11. CONCLUSION
  8. Chapter 4: Line Profiles Caused by Planar Faults
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. PEAK SHAPE RESULTED BY STACKING FAULTS AND TWIN BOUNDARIES ON {111} PLANES IN FCC CRYSTALS
    4. LINE PROFILES CAUSED BY TWIN BOUNDARIES IN HCP CRYSTALS
    5. INFLUENCE OF ANTI-PHASE BOUNDARIES ON PEAK BROADENING IN CUAU
    6. CONCLUSION
  9. Chapter 5: Influence of Chemical Heterogeneities on Line Profiles
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. THE CONCEPT OF COMPOSITIONAL MICROSTRAIN
    4. EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL HETEROGENEITIES FROM THE BREADTHS OF LINE PROFILES
    5. EDGEWORTH PROCEDURE FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ASYMMETRICAL CONCENTRATION DISTRIBUTION FROM LINE PROFILES
    6. EVALUATION OF CONCENTRATION DISTRIBUTION IN DECOMPOSED SOLID SOLUTION BY LINE PROFILE ANALYSIS
    7. CONCLUSION
  10. Chapter 6: Evaluation Methods of Line Profiles
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. CLASSICAL AND MODIFIED WARREN-AVERBACH METHODS
    4. MULTIPLE WHOLE PROFILE FITTING
    5. CLASSICAL AND MODIFIED WILLIAMSON-HALL METHODS
    6. VARIANCE METHODS
    7. WHOLE POWDER PATTERN FITTING AND MODELING
    8. CONVOLUTIONAL MULTIPLE WHOLE PROFILE FITTING
    9. CONCLUSION
  11. Chapter 7: Peak Profile Evaluation for Thin Films
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. EFFECT OF COHERENT SCATTERING OF NANOCRYSTALS ON LINE BROADENING OF TEXTURED FILMS
    4. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF THIN FILMS
    5. CONCLUSION
  12. Chapter 8: X-Ray Line Profile Analysis for Single Crystals
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. INTENSITY DISTRIBUTION AROUND THE RECIPROCAL LATTICE POINTS FOR SINGLE CRYSTALS
    4. DETERMINATION OF DENSITY, TYPE AND ARRANGEMENT OF DISLOCATIONS IN SINGLE CRYSTALS FROM LINE PROFILES
    5. CONCLUSION
  13. Chapter 9: Practical Applications of X-Ray Line Profile Analysis
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. INSTRUMENTAL CORRECTION
    4. DETERMINATION OF BURGERS-VECTOR POPULATION IN HEXAGONAL MATERIALS
    5. INVESTIGATION OF TWIN BOUNDARY TYPES IN HEXAGONAL CRYSTALS
    6. INTERPRETATION OF CRYSTALLITE SIZE OBTAINED BY LINE PROFILE ANALYSIS
    7. COMPARISON OF LATTICE DEFECT DENSITIES OBTAINED BY PEAK PROFILE ANALYSIS AND MICROSCOPY
    8. DETERMINATION OF VACANCY CONCENTRATION WITH THE HELP OF X-RAY LINE PROFILE ANALYSIS
    9. DETERMINATION OF LATTICE DEFECT STRUCTURE IN ULTRAFINE-GRAINED AND NANOCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS
    10. APPLICATION OF X-RAY LINE PROFILE ANALYSIS ON POLYMERS
    11. CONCLUSION
  14. Compilation of References
  15. About the Author