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X-Parameters by Jason Horn, Jan Verspecht, David E. Root

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6 Memory

6.1 Introduction

X-parameters were introduced in Chapter 2 as frequency-domain nonlinear mappings. The X-parameter functions are defined on the complex amplitudes of the incident CW signals, returning the complex amplitudes of the scattered CW signals. For fixed power, bias, and load conditions, these input and output amplitudes are constant (in time) complex numbers. As such, X-parameters were defined only for steady-state conditions.1

Real applications deal with signals that vary in time and the corresponding time-varying responses of DUTs to such stimuli. In particular, signals used in wireless communications can have independent time-varying values for the amplitudes and phases associated with each of the multiple carriers involved. ...

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