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X-Parameters by Jason Horn, Jan Verspecht, David E. Root

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4 X-parameter measurement

One of the key features that led to the wide adoption of S-parameters was the availability of hardware and calibration techniques capable of making quick, accurate, and repeatable S-parameter measurements. S-parameters can also be easily extracted in simulation from device or circuit models. In either case, the resulting S-parameters can immediately be used in simulation or design tools. In order to achieve similar success in the nonlinear domain, X-parameters must be easily measured and also easily extracted from simulation.

4.1 Measurement hardware

X-parameters, like S-parameters, represent the steady-state behavior of a device in the frequency domain. The linearity assumption of S-parameters, however, greatly simplifies ...

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