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Women in Engineering, Science and Technology: Education and Career Challenges

Book Description

Women in Engineering, Science and Technology: Education and Career Challenges provides a collection of recent high-quality empirical studies related to the education and careers of women in engineering, science and technology disciplines, with cases on innovative approaches to attracting and supporting women in training courses, and discussions on the effectiveness of mentoring, role models, government policy, and initiatives by professional bodies. This reference work is ideal for professionals and researchers working in the field of education and career development for women in engineering, science and technology, while also offering insights and support to academics concerned with attracting and retaining women in these disciplines, and providing information to members of professional bodies representing engineers, scientists and technology workers who wish to encourage women during their transition from education to the workforce.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. Foreword
  5. Preface
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK
    3. BOOK DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
    4. DISCLAIMERS
  6. Acknowledgment
  7. 1. Government Initiatives
    1. 1. The Smart Women – Smart State Strategy: A Policy on Women's Participation in Science, Engineering and Technology in Queensland, Australia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. OUTCOMES
        1. Profiling Women's Achievements in SET
        2. Sharing Good Practice to Engage Young Women in SET
          1. Programs to Promote SET to Young Women
            1. Bright Futures, Shining Stars
            2. The Sunshine Coast Science, Engineering and Technology Expo Get SET for the Future
            3. Successes/Achievements
            4. Quotes from Student Participants
        3. Promoting Pathways for Women in SET
          1. Women Engineering Queensland Workshops
          2. Smart Women – Smart State Board Shadowing Pilot
        4. Retaining Women in SET
          1. Returning to the SET Workforce Following a Career Break
          2. Flexible Working Arrangements in Science, Engineering and Technology: Information for Employers
        5. Partnerships
      5. OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES
      6. GOING FORWARD
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTE
    2. 1. Engineering Career Spotlight: Senior Engineer for Major Projects at Goonyella Riverside Mine
      1. Melanie Gordon, Moranbah
      2. Melanie's Role
      3. Typical Day at Work
      4. Community Benefit
    3. 2. Bias Literacy: A Review of Concepts in Research on Gender Discrimination and the U.S. Context
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The Vocabulary
        2. The Legal Context of the U.S.
      4. CONCEPTS
        1. Tradition vs. Bias
        2. Conscious vs. Unconscious Discrimination
        3. Overt vs. Covert Discrimination
        4. Personal vs. Institutional Bias
      5. RESEARCH SNAPSHOTS
        1. Gender Schema
        2. Accumulative Advantage
        3. Stereotype Threat
        4. Implicit Bias
        5. Glass Ceiling
        6. Mommy Track
        7. Occupational Segregation
        8. Statistical Profiling
        9. Climate Study
        10. Value of Diversity in Learning
      6. MEASURING SOCIETAL PROGRESS
      7. ORGANIZATIONS IN ACTION
        1. Accountability
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
    4. 2. Science Career Spotlight: Microalgal Research Fuels Biotechnology—Based New Industries
      1. Associate Professor Kirsten Heimann, School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia
      2. Summary of Research Interests
      3. Current Research Projects
      4. Current Innovative Research and Future Directions
  8. 2. Initiatives to Reach Girls in Schools
    1. 3. GETSMART: An Academic-Industry Partnership to Encourage Female Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Careers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WOMEN IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
      4. CAREER CHOICE FACTORS FOR WOMEN
        1. The Importance of Role Models and Mentors
      5. ACADEMIC-INDUSTRY PARTNERSHIPS
      6. GETSMART
        1. GETSMART Participants
        2. GETSMART Session Activities
      7. GETSMART SESSION FINDINGS
        1. Future Plans for GETSMART
        2. Evaluating GETSMART
      8. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ORGANIZING SIMILAR PROGRAMS
      9. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTES
    2. 3. Engineering Career Spotlight: Fabrication and Characterization of Radio Frequency Plasma Polymerized Thin Films from Terpinen—4—ol for Electronic and Biomaterial Applications
      1. Kateryna (Katia) Bazaka, Electronic Material Research Lab, School of Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland Australia
      2. Introduction
      3. Project Background
      4. PhD Research Aims
      5. Background
      6. Methodology
      7. Results
      8. Anticipated Final outcomes
    3. 4. Increasing the Numbers of Women in Science
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ISSUES PREVENTING GIRLS FROM ENTERING ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
        1. Parental Involvement
        2. Educational Opportunities and Guidance Counseling
        3. Work Life Balance
        4. Stereotypes
      5. WAYS TO INCREASE EXPOSURE
        1. Mentoring and Shadowing
        2. Parental Education
        3. Understanding of Engineering and Technology
        4. Academic Advising
        5. Defeating Stereotypes
        6. Changes in Educational Programs
        7. Programs Geared Towards Women in Engineering and Technology
          1. Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology
          2. Women in Computer Science
          3. Grace Hopper Celebration for Women and Computing
          4. TechLeaders
          5. Women of Vision
          6. Systers
          7. ABI Awards
          8. MentorNet
          9. Black Data Processing Association
          10. Girls in Science
          11. Sisters in Science
          12. Women in Science and Engineering
          13. Women in Engineering and Outreach
          14. Lore-El Center
          15. Additional Programs with Websites
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    4. 4. Science Career Spotlight: Phytoplankton Growth in Queensland Coastal Waters
      1. Emily shaw, climate change Research centre, The university of New south Wales, sydney NSW 2052, Australia, e.shaw@student.unsw.edu.au
      2. Introduction
      3. Project 1: Impacts of Dust Deposition on Phytoplankton Dynamics
      4. Background
      5. Methods
      6. Results and Significance
      7. Project 2: Impacts of Climatic variability on Phytoplankton Dynamics
      8. Sharing of Information with the Community
  9. 3. Programs for College and University Students
    1. 5. Understanding the Links between Mentoring and Self-Efficacy in the New Generation of Women STEM Scholars
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Barriers to the success of Women in STEM
        2. Institutional Barriers and Difficulties in Recruiting and Retaining Women within STEM Fields
        3. Role of Mentoring in STEM
        4. Types of Mentoring
        5. Formal Mentoring
        6. Informal Mentoring
        7. Mentoring and self-Efficacy
      4. METHODOLOGY
        1. Research Design and Samples
        2. Samples
        3. Measures
        4. Analytical Design
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 5. Technology Career Spotlight: QUT Bachelor of Corporate Systems Management
      1. Helen Vahdat, Brisbane, Queensland
      2. Introduction
    3. 6. Go WEST – Supporting Women in Engineering, Science and Technology: An Australian Higher Education Case Study
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. OUTLINE OF RESEARCH APPROACH
      5. THE GO WEST CASE STUDY
        1. Establishing the Project
        2. Implementing the Project
        3. Sustaining the Project Activities
      6. CHALLENGES
        1. Institutional Restructuring and Funding
        2. Sustainability
        3. Participation of SET Staff and Students
        4. Corporate Stipulations
        5. Feminine Way of Working is Undervalued
      7. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS
        1. Recommendations
        2. Future Directions
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. POSTSCRIPT
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
    4. 6. Technology Career Spotlight: General Manager of Education Solutions at TechnologyOne
      1. Teresa Murphy, Brisbane
      2. Background
      3. Role and Responsibilities
      4. Goals and Achievements
      5. Innovation and Value
      6. Conclusion
  10. 4. Careers and Women at Work
    1. 7. The Computer Games Industry: Women's Experiences of Work Role in a Male Dominated Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Women Working in the Science Engineering and Technology Industries (SET)
        2. The Computer Games Industries Current Climate
        3. Women Working in the Computer Games Industry
      4. WORK LIFE BALANCE ISSUES
        1. Work Life Balance, Long Hours and Flexible Working
        2. Flexible Working
        3. Recommendations
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
        1. Women and Computer Games
      9. WORK LIFE BALANCE ISSUES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. 7. Science Career Spotlight: In Search of New Vaccine for Cattle Tick
      1. Ala Lew-Tabor, Brisbane, Australia
      2. Introduction
      3. The Ticks
      4. The Science
      5. Research Highlights
      6. Highlights of A/prof Lew-Tabor's Innovation to Establish this Program
      7. Environmental Benefit
      8. Economic or Business Viability
      9. Community Benefit
      10. Sharing Information with the Community
      11. Summary Statement
    3. 8. "We Don't Have the Key to the Executive Washroom": Women's Perceptions and Experiences of Promotion in Academia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. METHODS
      4. WOMEN ACADEMICS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRADFORD
      5. WHAT WOMEN TOLD US ABOUT PROMOTIONS CRITERIA
        1. What Women Told us about their Experiences of Preparing for and Applying for Promotion
      6. THE UNIVERSITY'S FORMAL PROMOTIONS/REGRADING CRITERIA
      7. HIDDEN CRITERIA AND OTHER BARRIERS TO PROMOTION
        1. Working Time and Work Life Balance
        2. Gendered Approaches to Work
        3. The Old Boys Networks - Alive and Well?
      8. PROMOTIONS CRITERIA AS A TOOL FOR PERSONAL CAREER PLANNING
      9. TRANSPARENCY AND FAIR PROCESS
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. ENDNOTES
    4. 8. Technology Career Spotlight: Developing a Dynamic Environmental Calibration Technology for Cost Effective Online Water Quality Monitoring
      1. Shoshana Fogelman, South East Queensland
      2. Introduction
      3. Project 1: Developing a Dynamic Environmental calibration Technology for cost Effective online Water Quality Monitoring
      4. Project 2: Western Corridor Recycled Water Project Urban Water Security Research Alliance
      5. Project 3: Anaerobic Digester Stability Sensor Project
      6. Community Benefit of Research
      7. Student Supervision
      8. International and Nationally Recognised Researcher
      9. Founding Australian Water Association (AWA) Queensland Young Water Professionals (YWPs) Special Interest Group
      10. Developed National Mentoring Program for the Australian Water Industry
    5. 9. Factors Contributing to the Success of Women Working in Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) Careers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Structural Barriers
        2. Individual Barriers
      4. PROBLEM
      5. METHOD
      6. SAMPLE
      7. RESULTS
        1. What the Careers Entailed
        2. Achieving Success in a SET Career
        3. Motivation to Pursue a Science, Engineering and Technology Career
        4. Gender-Based Difficulties in Achieving Success
        5. Encountering Difficulties in the Career as a Woman and Overcoming Them
        6. Remaining in SET
        7. Influence of Personal Life
        8. Acting as a Role Model
      8. DISCUSSION
        1. Structural and Individual Barriers
        2. Mastery Experiences
        3. Vicarious and Support Experiences
        4. The Role of Resiliency
        5. More than Self-Efficacy?
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    6. 9. Engineering Career Spotlight: Project Manager for a Major Power Strengthening Project in Regional Queensland
      1. Julie Martin, Electrical Engineer, Power Systems Team, TrackStar Alliance
      2. Introduction
      3. A Speedy Solution
      4. The Project
      5. A New Approach
      6. Innovation
      7. New Ground for QR
      8. Creating a Legacy and Providing Community Benefit
      9. Part of the Bigger picture
    7. 10. Women Access to Computers and Internet: A Malaysian Perspective
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Digital Divide
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Women and Computer Access
          1. Do Malaysian Women have Access to Computer and ICT?
        2. Women and Internet Access
      4. A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYZING WOMEN'S ACCESS TO COMPUTERS AND INTERNET
        1. Access to Computer
        2. Access to Internet
        3. Government Intervention
        4. Attitudes
        5. Perceived Usefulness
        6. Perceived Ease of Use
        7. Training
        8. ICT Infrastructure
        9. Educational Status
        10. Language
        11. Income
      5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. 10. Technology Career Spotlight: Cooperative Education in USQ Networking Programs with Leading Industry Organisation and Service to South-East Queensland Regional IT Professionals
      1. Dr. Yan Li, USQ, Toowoomba
      2. Introduction
      3. The Project
        1. 1. Incorporate Cisco Network Training Courses into USQ Networking Major
        2. 2. In line with Cisco New Curriculum, Cisco CCNA Exploration, and Update the Cisco Lab
        3. The Innovation of the Project
        4. The Outcomes of the Project
      4. Summary
    9. 11. SET Women and Careers: A Case Study of Senior Female Scientists in the UK
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: WOMEN IN SET
      4. PROBLEMS FACING WOMEN IN SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
      5. MENTORING: A CAREER PROGRESSION STRATEGY?
        1. Gender Stereotyping and Women in SET
        2. Gendered Organisations and Gendered Careers
      6. METHODS
      7. FINDINGS
        1. Career Background
        2. Career Challenges
        3. Career Progression Strategies
      8. THE ROLE OF MENTORS
      9. SENIOR WOMEN AS POTENTIAL MENTORS AND ROLE MODELS
      10. SATISFACTION WITH CAREER PROGRESSION AND FUTURE CAREER ASPIRATIONS
      11. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ENDNOTES
    10. 11. Science Career Spotlight: Pollinating Insects in Natural and Agricultural Ecosystems in Australia's Tropics
      1. Romina Rader, School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Cairns
      2. Project Objectives
      3. Project Rationale
        1. Current (and Pending) Progress and Achievements
        2. Progress and Achievements in the Next 3-6 Months
      4. Innovative Aspects of Project
      5. Aspects of Project Demonstrating Community Benefit
      6. Environmental Benefits
      7. Economic or Business Viability
    11. 12. The Career Challenge of the Gendered Academic Research Culture: Can Internet Technologies Make a Difference?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The Gendered Research Culture
        2. Micro Levels of the Gendered Research Culture: Interactions and Identities
          1. Interactions
          2. Identity
          3. Discipline and the Gendered Research Culture
      4. THE STUDY
        1. Web Review
        2. Interviews
      5. RESULTS
        1. Web Review
        2. Interviews
          1. Interaction - Networking and Communication
            1. Reputation Building
            2. Collaboration Opportunities
            3. Information Gathering
          2. Identity - Self-Confidence and Self-promotion
          3. Discipline
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. ENDNOTES
    12. 12. Engineering Career Spotlight: Investigation of Domestic Water End Use in Toowoomba
      1. Nicola Mead, GradiEAust, Toowoomba Regional Council, Toowoomba
      2. Introduction
      3. Background
      4. Residential Water Use
      5. Future Directions
    13. 13. Progression of UK Women Engineers: Aids and Hurdles
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND LITERATURE
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
        1. Data Collection Tools
        2. Questionnaires
        3. Interviews
        4. Overall Industry Representation
        5. Data Coding and Analysis
      5. FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
        1. Engineering Personalities
        2. Getting on in Engineering
        3. The Perception of Females who Progressed!
      6. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    14. 13. Engineering Career Spotlight: Environmental Engineer
      1. Rachelle Willis, Brisbane, Australia
      2. Introduction
      3. Research Thesis
      4. Dissemination of Information and Knowledge
      5. The 6th Annual Environmental Student Project Award Evening (October 2005)
      6. Promoting and Supporting Environmental Engineering
      7. President of the Griffith University Environmental Engineering Society (GUEES) 2005
      8. Student Representative of the Environmental Engineering School Committee 2005
      9. Mythbusters 2005
      10. Griffith University Open Day 2005
      11. Closing Comments (2009)
    15. 14. Women in Brazilian CS Research Community: The State-of-the-Art
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND RELATED WoRK
        1. Computer Science Numbers in US
        2. Related Work
      4. THE STATE-OF-THE-ART
        1. Methodology
        2. Statistics from 2008 Events
        3. Historical Results
        4. Complementary Numbers
          1. Graduate Thesis Award
          2. Graduate Programs Faculty Advisors
          3. International Program Committees
      5. TARGETING THE PROBLEM
        1. WIT: Women in Information Technology Workshop
        2. Bits, Bytes & Batom
        3. Ideas for Brazilian CS Community
      6. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. ENDNOTES
      9. REFERENCES
    16. Compilation of References
    17. About the Contributors