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Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks: Algorithms and Protocols for Scalable Coordination and Data Communication

Book Description

A mixture of theory, experiments, and simulations that provide qualitative and quantitative insights into the technology

The important new technology of wireless sensor and actuator networks provides radically new communication and networking paradigms with many new applications. Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks is a timely text that presents a fault-tolerant, reliable, low-latency, and energy-aware framework for wireless sensor and actuator networks, enabling readers to fulfill the ultimate goals of the applications—such as protecting critical infrastructures, achieving timely emergency responses, and monitoring the environment. Taking a problem-oriented approach, this resource discusses a wide range of computing and communication problems and solutions that arise in rapidly emerging wireless sensor and actuator networks, striking a balance between theory and practice.

  • Discusses backbones as subsets of sensors or actuators that suffice for performing basic data communication operations or area sensing coverage

  • Surveys existing data communication schemes (broadcasting, routing, multicasting, anycasting, geocasting) for sensor-actuator coordination

  • Reviews the location service techniques

  • Addresses the problem of energy-efficient data gathering by mobile sinks/actuators

  • Describes protocols for coordination and topology control in sensor, actuator, and robot networks

  • Reviews existing solutions to the sensor placement problem in wireless sensor and actuator networks

  • This book is unique in that it addresses sensor and actuator networking in a comprehensive manner—covering all the aspects and providing up-to-date information—so that industry operators and academics from various areas can learn more about current networking trends, become aware of the possible architectures, and understand the advantages and limits in future commercial, social, and educational applications. Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks is appropriate for graduate students in computer science, electrical engineering, and telecommunications, as well as practitioners working as engineers, programmers, and technologists.

    Table of Contents

    1. Cover Page
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright
    4. Contents
    5. Preface
      1. BRIEF OUTLINE OF THIS BOOK
      2. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    6. Contributors
    7. Chapter 1: Applications, Models, Problems, and Solution Strategies
      1. 1.1 WIRELESS SENSORS
      2. 1.2 SINGLE-HOP WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
      3. 1.3 MULTIHOP WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
      4. 1.4 EVENT-DRIVEN, PERIODIC, AND ON-DEMAND REPORTING
      5. 1.5 UNIT DISK GRAPH MODELING, HOP COUNT METRIC, AND PROBABILISTIC RECEPTION
      6. 1.6 ADJUSTABLE TRANSMISSION RANGE AND POWER METRIC
      7. 1.7 COST METRICS
      8. 1.8 SLEEP AND ACTIVE STATE MODELING
      9. 1.9 ARCHITECTURES FOR WIRELESS SENSOR AND ACTUATOR NETWORKS
      10. 1.10 SIMPLE MODELS AND APPLICATION OF WIRELESS SENSOR AND ACTUATOR NETWORKS
      11. 1.11 GENERATING CONNECTED WIRELESS SENSOR AND ACTUATOR NETWORKS
      12. 1.12 GENERATING MOBILE WIRELESS SENSOR AND ACTUATOR NETWORKS
      13. 1.13 PROBLEMS AT PHYSICAL, MAC, AND TRANSPORT LAYERS
      14. 1.14 PROBLEMS AT THE NETWORK LAYER
      15. 1.15 LOCALIZED PROTOCOLS AS THE SOLUTION FRAMEWORK
      16. 1.16 IMPLEMENTATION OF SENSOR MOTES
      17. 1.17 EXPERIMENTS ON TEST BEDS
      18. 1.18 EXPERIENCES WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF SENSOR NETWORK SYSTEMS
      19. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 2: Energy-Efficient Backbones and Broadcasting in Sensor and Actuator Networks
      1. 2.1 BACKBONES
      2. 2.2 GRID PARTITIONING-BASED BACKBONES
      3. 2.3 CLUSTERING-BASED BACKBONES
      4. 2.4 CONNECTED DOMINATING SETS AS BACKBONES
      5. 2.5 OVERVIEW OF BROADCASTING TECHNIQUES
      6. 2.6 PHYSICAL LAYER-BASED FLOODING, NEIGHBOR DETECTION AND ROUTE DISCOVERY
      7. 2.7 PARAMETERLESS BROADCASTING FOR DELAY TOLERANT-NETWORKS
      8. 2.8 BACKBONES AND BROADCASTING IN SENSOR–ACTUATOR NETWORKS
      9. 2.9 RNG AND LMST
      10. 2.10 MINIMAL ENERGY BROADCASTING
      11. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 3: Sensor Area Coverage
      1. 3.1 PROBLEMS, MODELS, AND ASSUMPTIONS
      2. 3.2 COVERAGE AND CONNECTIVITY CRITERIA
      3. 3.3 AREA-DOMINATING SET BASED SENSOR AREA COVERAGE ALGORITHM
      4. 3.4 ASYNCHRONOUS SENSOR AREA COVERAGE
      5. 3.5 SYNCHRONOUS SENSOR AREA COVERAGE
      6. 3.6 MULTICOVERAGE BY SENSORS
      7. 3.7 PHYSICAL LAYER-BASED SENSING, PROTOCOLS, AND CASE STUDIES
      8. 3.8 OPERATION RANGE ASSIGNMENT IN WSANs
      9. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 4: Geographic Routing in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
      1. 4.1 FLOODING-BASED ROUTING AND GEOROUTING IN SENSOR NETWORKS
      2. 4.2 GREEDY, PROJECTION, AND DIRECTION-BASED ROUTING
      3. 4.3 APPLICATIONS OF COST TO PROGRESS RATIO FRAMEWORK TO GEOROUTING
      4. 4.4 MEMORIZATION-BASED GEOROUTING WITH GUARANTEED DELIVERY
      5. 4.5 GUARANTEED DELIVERY WITHOUT MEMORIZATION
      6. 4.6 BEACONLESS GEOROUTING
      7. 4.7 GEOROUTING WITH VIRTUAL AND TREE COORDINATES
      8. 4.8 GEOROUTING IN SENSOR AND ACTUATOR NETWORKS
      9. 4.9 LINK QUALITY METRIC IN SENSOR AND ACTUATOR NETWORKS
      10. 4.10 PHYSICAL LAYER ASPECTS AND CASE STUDIES OF GEOROUTING
      11. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 5: Multicasting, Geocasting, and Anycasting in Sensor and Actuator Networks
      1. 5.1 MULTICASTING
      2. 5.2 GEOCASTING WITH GUARANTEED DELIVERY
      3. 5.3 RATE-BASED MULTICASTING
      4. 5.4 ANYCASTING WITH GUARANTEED DELIVERY
      5. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 6: Sink Mobility in Wireless Sensor Networks
      1. 6.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 6.2 ENERGY HOLE PROBLEM
      3. 6.3 ENERGY EFFICIENCY BY SINK MOBILITY
      4. 6.4 SINK MOBILITY IN DELAY-TOLERANT NETWORKS
      5. 6.5 SINK MOBILITY IN REAL-TIME NETWORKS
      6. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 7: Topology Control in Sensor, Actuator, and Mobile Robot Networks
      1. 7.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 7.2 GENERAL APPROACHES IN STATIC SENSOR NETWORKS
      3. 7.3 THE MINIMUM SPANNING TREE
      4. 7.4 DATA AGGREGATION
      5. 7.5 SPANNING TREES IN UNCONTROLLED DYNAMIC TOPOLOGIES
      6. 7.6 DETECTION OF CRITICAL NODES AND LINKS
      7. 7.7 BICONNECTED ROBOT TEAM MOVEMENT FOR SENSOR DEPLOYMENT
      8. 7.8 AUGMENTATION ALGORITHM FOR ROBOT SELF DEPLOYMENT
      9. 7.9 BICONNECTIVITY FROM CONNECTIVITY WITHOUT ADDITIONAL CONSTRAINTS
      10. 7.10 BICONNECTIVITY FROM CONNECTIVITY WITH ADDITIONAL CONSTRAINTS
      11. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 8: Location Service in Sensor and Mobile Actuator Networks
      1. 8.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 8.2 CLASSIFICATION OF LOCATION SERVICES
      3. 8.3 LOCATION UPDATE POLICIES
      4. 8.4 FLOODING-BASED ALGORITHMS
      5. 8.5 QUORUM-BASED ALGORITHMS
      6. 8.6 HOME-BASED APPROACHES
      7. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 9: Coordination in Sensor, Actuator, and Robot Networks
      1. 9.1 SENSOR-ACTUATOR COORDINATION
      2. 9.2 TASK ASSIGNMENT IN MULTIROBOT SYSTEMS
      3. 9.3 SELECTING BEST ROBOT(S) WHEN COMMUNICATION COST IS NEGLIGIBLE
      4. 9.4 SELECTING BEST ROBOT(S) WITH NONNEGLIGIBLE COMMUNICATION COSTS
      5. 9.5 DYNAMIC TASK ASSIGNMENT
      6. 9.6 DEPLOYING SENSORS TO IMPROVE CONNECTIVITY
      7. 9.7 FAULT-TOLERANT SEMIPASSIVE COORDINATION AMONG ACTUATORS
      8. 9.8 DISPERSION OF AUTONOMOUS MOBILE ROBOTS
      9. 9.9 DISTRIBUTED BOUNDARY COVERAGE BY ROBOTS
      10. 9.10 CLUSTERING ROBOT SWARMS
      11. 9.11 ROBOT TEAMS FOR EXPLORATION AND MAPPING
      12. 9.12 COORDINATED ACTUATOR MOVEMENT FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT SENSOR REPORTING
      13. 9.13 FLYING ROBOTS
      14. REFERENCES
    16. Chapter 10: Sensor Placement in Sensor and Actuator Networks
      1. 10.1 INTRODUCTION
      2. 10.2 MOVEMENT-ASSISTED SENSOR PLACEMENT
      3. 10.3 MOBILE SENSOR MIGRATION
      4. 10.4 SENSOR PLACEMENT BY ACTUATORS
      5. 10.5 COVERAGE MAINTENANCE BY ACTUATORS
      6. 10.6 SENSOR SELF-DEPLOYMENT
      7. 10.7 SENSOR RELOCATION
      8. REFERENCES
    17. Index