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Wireless Network Traffic and Quality of Service Support: Trends and Standards

Book Description

Wireless Network Traffic and Quality of Service Support: Trends and Standards examines cutting edge approaches for the provision of Quality of Service (QoS) in wireless local area networks, presenting the latest solutions towards the optimization of the channel management and routing in infrastructure and ad hoc wireless networks. This book also analyzes traffic categorization issues and methods that can predict the available QoS, as well as managing wireless mesh networks and wireless sensor networks. It also examines the entire user experience, by treating energy conservation techniques to maximize mobile devices' battery lifetime. It is a vital foundation for researchers dealing with the problems of today to create the new networks of the future.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. Foreword
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgment
  7. 1. QoS Provision in Wireless Local Area Networks
    1. 1. Hybrid Approach to Integrated QoS Capable Protocols for Wireless LANs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE IEEE 802.11E HYBRID COORDINATION FUNCTION
        1. Enhanced Distributed Channel Access
        2. Hybrid Control Channel Access
      5. PRIORITY ORIENTED HYBRID ACCESS
        1. Priority Oriented Adaptive Polling
        2. Priority Oriented Adaptive Control with QoS Guarantee
      6. SIMULATION ANALYSIS
        1. Simulation Characteristics
        2. The Simulation Scenario
        3. Simulation Evaluation of POHA Compared with HCF
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
    2. 2. Cross–Layer Scheduling with QoS Support over a Near–Optimum Distributed Queueing Protocol for Wireless LANS
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE DQCA PROTOCOL
        1. Protocol Overview
        2. Protocol Description
          1. DTR (Data Transmission Rules)
          2. RTR (Request Transmission Rules)
          3. QDR (Queueing Discipline Rules)
        3. Example of the DQCA Operation
      5. CROSS-LAYER SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS
        1. Cross-Layer Opportunistic Scheduling Algorithm (CL-algorithm)
        2. Strict Service Priority Scheduling Algorithm (SP-algorithm)
        3. Cross-Layer with Strict Service Priority Scheduling Algorithm (CLSP-algorithm)
        4. Virtual Priority Function Scheduling Algorithm (VPF-algorithm)
        5. Example of the Cross-Layer Scheduling Operation
      6. CASE STUDY AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
        1. Channel Model
        2. Traffic Models
          1. Data Traffic Sources
          2. Voice Traffic Sources
          3. Video Traffic Sources
        3. Service Differentiation and QoS Requirements
        4. MAC Layer Parameters
      7. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
    3. 3. Delay Constrained Admission Control and Scheduling Policy for IEEE 802.11e HCCA Method
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE REFERENCE DESIGN IN IEEE 802.11E HCCA METHOD
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. THE PROPOSED SCHEME
        1. Admission Control Scheme for Access Decision
          1. Admission Control for CBR Traffic
            1. Proof
          2. Admission Control for VBR Traffic
            1. Proof
        2. Packet Scheduling Policy for HCCA Method
      6. MEAN QUEUEING DELAY ANALYSIS
      7. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
        1. Simulation Environment
        2. Simulation Results
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    4. 4. Quality of Service in Heterogeneous Traffic Wireless Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Chapter Organization
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SYSTEM MODEL
      5. MULTIBEAM OPPORTUNISTIC BEAMFORMING (MOB)
      6. QoS SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
        1. Access Delay Outage
        2. Minimum Rate Outage
        3. Outage of the System
        4. Maximum Scheduling Delay
        5. Minimum Guaranteed Throughput per User and per Slot
      7. DATA LINK CONTROL WITH DYNAMIC QUEUE LENGTH
      8. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
    5. 5. Traffic Prediction over Wireless Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TRAFFIC PREDICTION MODELS
        1. Time Series Models
          1. AR Model
          2. MA Model
          3. ARMA Model
          4. ARIMA Model
          5. FARIMA Model
          6. GARCH Model
        2. Artificial Neural Network Models
          1. Multi-Layer Feed-Forward Neural Networks
          2. Recurrent Neural Network
        3. Wavelet-Based Models
        4. Support Vector Machine
      5. PREDICTION METHOD AND PERFORMANCE METRICS
        1. Prediction Methods
          1. One-Step-Ahead Prediction
          2. Multi-Step-Ahead Prediction
        2. Performance Metrics
      6. TRAFFIC PREDICTION IN WLANS
        1. WLANS Traffic Traces
          1. One-Step-Ahead Prediction
          2. Multi-Step-Ahead Prediction
          3. Computational Complexity
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
    6. 6. Cross-Layer Optimization for Energy-Efficient QoS Support of Multimedia Streams
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE SCALABLE VIDEO CODEC
        1. Temporal Scalability
        2. Spatial Scalability
        3. SNR Quality Scalability
        4. Rate - Distortion - Complexity Tradeoffs in SVC
        5. Codec Energy Modeling
      5. WIRELESS ENERGY MODElING IN IEEE 802.11E
      6. STACK-WIDE CROSS-LAYER OPTIMIZATION
        1. Coding Energy and Wireless Energy Tradeoffs
        2. Practical Implementation: Sensing of Average Wireless Energy
        3. Optimal Target Quality for Energy Minimization
        4. Energy Savings
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    7. 7. QoS and Energy Saving Routing and MAC Mechanisms for Wireless Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ENERGY AWARE PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS
        1. The Multi-Cost Routing Approach
        2. Energy and Joint Interference/Energy Aware Multi-Cost Routing Algorithms
        3. Cost Parameters
          1. Optimization Functions - Algorithms
          2. Multi-Cost vs. Single-cost Routing
        4. The Slow Start Power Control MAC protocol
          1. The Slow Start Feature of the SSPC Protocol
          2. The CTS Mechanism in the SSPC Protocol
      5. PERFORMANCE RESULTS
        1. Multi-Cost Routing Algorithms Performance Evaluation
          1. Energy-Aware Multi-Cost Routing Algorithms
          2. Joint Interference/Energy Aware Multi-Cost Routing Algorithms
        2. Power Control MAC Protocol Performance Evaluation
      6. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
    8. 8. Mobility Management and QoS Support in Wireless Environments: Trends and Open Issues
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRESENTATION OF MOBILITY MANAGEMENT PROTOCOLS
        1. Mobile IP
        2. Mobile IP Enhancements and Extensions
      4. QUALITY OF SERVICE MECHANISMS
        1. Integrated and Differentiated Services
        2. MPLS, a Traffic Engineering Approach
        3. QoS Aggregation
      5. MOBILITY AND QOS INTERACTION
        1. Interaction with RSVP
        2. Interaction with QoS-NSLP
        3. Aggregating Resources and Mobility
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. 9. Management, Monitoring and QoS in Multi-Cell Centralized WLANs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The Rationale Behind Centralized WLAN Architecture
        2. The CAPWAP Protocol: Features, Design and Implementation Issues
        3. QoS Issues in WLANs and Multi-Cell WLANs
      4. STRATEGIES AND MECHANISMS FOR QOS SUPPORT IN MULTI-CELL CENTRALIZED WLANS
        1. A Framework for Multi-Cell QoS Monitoring and Management
        2. Issues and Experiences in Multi-Cell QoS Monitoring
        3. Issues and Experiences in Multi-Cell QoS Management
          1. Admission Control
          2. Dynamic MAC Parameter Setting
          3. Frequency Planning
          4. Load Balancing
          5. Mobility Manager
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
        1. Glossary
      11. ENDNOTE
    10. 10. QoS Support in Multi-hop Ad-hoc Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PHYSICAL LAYER PROTOCOLS
        1. Transmission Power
        2. Receiver Sensitivity
        3. Signal-to-Noise Ratio
        4. Transmission Rate
          1. Statistics-Based Rate Selection Algorithms
          2. SNR-based Rate Selection Algorithms
      5. DATA LINK LAYER PROTOCOLS
      6. MACA/PR
        1. IEEE 802.11 DCF with a multi-Priority Scheme
        2. Black Burst Contention Scheme
      7. PUMA
        1. ES-DCF and DB-DCF
        2. QoS Enabled MAC for Multi-Hop Ad-Hoc
      8. QMA
      9. NETWORK LAYER PROTOCOLS
      10. CEDAR
          1. Route Discovery and Maintenance
      11. TBP
      12. BR
          1. Bandwidth Reservation and Slot Assignment
          2. Route Maintenance
        1. BRuIT
          1. Neighborhood Discovery
          2. Route Discovery
          3. Route Maintenance
      13. TDR
          1. Database Management
          2. Route Discovery
          3. Route Maintenance
        1. QoS-AODV and QoS-TORA
          1. QoS-AODV
          2. QoS-TORA
        2. QoS-AODV
          1. Bandwidth Calculation
          2. Route Discovery
          3. Bandwidth Reservation
      14. PLBQR
          1. Update Protocol
          2. Location-Delay Prediction Scheme
          3. QoS Routing Protocol
        1. QoS-OLSR
      15. AQOR
          1. Neighborhood Maintenance
          2. Route Discovery
          3. Admission Control and Temporary Reservation
          4. Route Maintenance
      16. ADQR
          1. Sets and Classes
          2. Neighbor and Routing Table
          3. Route Discovery
          4. Route Maintenance
      17. QS-AODV
          1. Route Discovery
          2. Route Maintenance
        1. QoS-aware AODV
          1. Bandwidth Estimation
          2. Route Discovery
          3. Route Maintenance
      18. QMRPCAH
          1. Clustering
          2. Mobility Support
      19. TORA-SHORT
      20. CROSS LAYER QOS ARCHITECTURES
      21. FQMM
      22. INSIGNIA
      23. SWAN
        1. 2LQoS
      24. DS-SWAN
        1. The DAIDALOS Approach
      25. HQMM
      26. FQM
      27. CLQM
        1. Summary
      28. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      29. CONCLUSION
      30. REFERENCES
      31. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. 11. Efficient Obstacle Avoidance for Sensory Data Propagation in Wireless Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Greedy Routing
        2. Planar Graph Transversal Techniques
          1. Network Model
        3. Graph Planarization
          1. Perimeter Routing
        4. Geographic Routing Without Planarization
        5. Obstacle Avoidance
      4. BEHAVIOR BASED OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE
        1. Reputation - Path Ranking Analogy
        2. Routing
          1. Algorithm 1 Trust Based Routing Strategy
        3. Behavior Model - Beta Probabilistic Function
          1. Algorithm 2 Bayesian Computation Trust Update
          2. Threshold Selection
          3. Example
          4. Algorithm 3 Last Step Trust Update
          5. Algorithm 4 Bayesian with Inference Trust Update
          6. Weight Selection
          7. State Dissemination
        4. Performance Evaluation
          1. Network Configuration
          2. Experimental Results
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. ENDNOTES
  8. 2. QoS Provision in Wireless Wide Area Networks
    1. 12. TPC and Non—TPC Based Topology Control Approaches for QoS Improvement in MR—WMN
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Literature Review
        2. QoS in a MR-WMN — Motivation and Dependence
        3. Network Management and Topology Control
        4. Multiagent Systems (MAS)
          1. A. What is an Intelligent Agent?
          2. B. What is a Multiagent System?
      4. PROPOSED NON-TPC APPROACH
        1. Literature Review
        2. Network Initialization
          1. Initialisation in A MR-WMN Infrastructure Network
        3. ICR Algorithm (Self-Organization Algorithm)
        4. Impact on Network management
        5. Proposed Non-TPC Approach - Issues, Solutions & Results
          1. Link Substitution and Addition Algorithms
          2. Enhanced Topology Control
            1. Netlogo
            2. Motivation for using NetLogo
            3. Topology Control Algorithms implementation in NetLogo
            4. Portal First
            5. New Path Reduction Algorithm
            6. Link Substitution Algorithm-Pseudo Code
          3. Results & Disscussion
          4. Impact on QoS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    2. 13. QoS Support Mechanisms in WiMAX
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. QOS SUPPORT ARCHITECTURE IN WIMAX
      5. BANDWIDTH MANAGEMENT QOS SUPPORT MECHANISMS
        1. Resource Reservation Mechanisms
        2. Connection Admission Control Mechanisms
        3. Bandwidth Management by a Cross-Layer Approach
        4. Packet Scheduling QoS Support Mechanisms
        5. Holonomic Approach for Packet Scheduling
          1. Hierarchical Approach for Packet Scheduling
          2. Opportunistic Packet Scheduling Algorithms with Cross-layer Approach
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    3. 14. 4G Wireless Networks: Architectures, QoS Support and Dynamic Resource Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. QOS PROVISION IN 4G NETWORKS
        1. QoS Provision & Specifications Related to 4G
        2. Challenges Related to Heterogeneous Networks
          1. Vertical and Horizontal Handoffs
          2. Best Connectivity Problem
        3. Different Access Technologies Inter-Operability
          1. Tight Coupling Architecture
          2. Loose Coupling Architecture
        4. Network Services Models
          1. Integrated Services (IntServ)
          2. Differentiated Services (DiffServ)
      5. DYNAMIC RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND CALL ADMISSION CONTROL
        1. Dynamic Resource Allocation Schemes
          1. Bandwidth Reservation Techniques
          2. Bandwidth Degradation Techniques
        2. Dynamic Allocation Schemes Using QoS Renegotiation
        3. Game Theory in Resource Allocation
        4. Dynamic Pricing and Call Admission Control
          1. Dynamic Pricing for Heterogeneous 4G Networks
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    4. 15. QoS-Predictions Service: QoS Support for Proactive Mobile Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Quality of Service Management
        2. Quality of Service Predictions
      4. FEASIBILITY ASSESSMENT OF QOS-PREDICTIONS
        1. Motivation, Context and Approach
        2. Background Information and Methodology for Predictions Study
        3. System Overview
        4. Compliance with JINI Surrogate Architecture
        5. End-to-End Communication Path
        6. Application-level QoS
        7. MobiHealth System Measurements
        8. Application Flow
        9. MBU and BEsys Platforms
        10. Measurements Instrumentation
        11. Predictions Tasks Definition
        12. Collected Data Summary
        13. Data Representation
        14. Training and Testing Accuracy
        15. Prediction Results
        16. Conclusion on Prediction Results
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
    5. 16. Enhanced QoS through Cooperating Schemes in Next Generation Wireless Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NETWORK SELECTION MECHANISMS
        1. Background
        2. Selection Criteria: Key Performance Indicators
        3. The Importance of Pricing in Network Selection
        4. Weights of Selection Criteria
        5. Fuzzy Logic-Based Schemes for Network Ranking
        6. Applying Multi-Attribute Decision Making to Network Selection
        7. Combining Fuzzy Logic and Multi-Attribute Decision Making
      4. COOPERATION AMONG USERS IN 4G NETWORKS
        1. Background
        2. Cooperative Services in 4G
        3. Incentive Mechanisms
          1. Cooperation Based on Credits
          2. Cooperation Based on Reputation
        4. Cooperative Relays and Diversity
        5. Cross-Layer Optimization
      5. APPLICATIONS OF GAME THEORY IN WIRELESS NETWORKS
        1. Background - Fundamentals of Game Theory
        2. Applications of Non-Cooperative Games
          1. Medium Access Control
          2. Pricing of Network Resources
          3. Access Admission Control
        3. Network vs. Network
        4. User vs. Network
          1. Cell Selection
        5. Applications of Cooperative Games
          1. Formation of Coalitions
          2. Bargaining
          3. Power Control
          4. Spectrum Allocation
          5. Routing
          6. Resource Allocation in Shared Network Infrastructures
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    6. 17. Admission Control for QoS Provision in Mobile Wireless Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. QUALITY OF SERVICE IN ADMISSION CONTROL
        1. Necessity for Radio Resource Management
        2. Operating Principles for Admission Control
        3. Classification of Service Classes
      5. CAC SCHEMES PROVIDING QOS
        1. CAC Schemes Criteria
        2. Classification of CAC Schemes
        3. Network Model and System Analysis
        4. Guard Channel / Fractional Guard Channel Policies (Thinning Schemes)
        5. CAC Schemes Based on Signal Quality (SIR-Based)
        6. Bandwidth Adaptation and QoS Re-Negotiation
        7. Price Driven CAC Schemes
      6. EVALUATION CRITERIA AND PERFORMANCE METRICS
        1. CBP Estimation
        2. Fairness and Resource Allocation
        3. Revenue Approach
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
    7. 18. Efficient Power Allocation in E-MBMS Enabled 4G Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. MBMS Operation Modes
        2. MBMS Architecture
        3. Multicast Mode of MBMS
          1. Packet Delivery Process
          2. MBMS Multicast Mode Radio Bearers
          3. Radio Bearers' Selection
      4. POWER CONTROL IN E-MBMS MULTICAST MODE
        1. HS-DSCH Power Profile
        2. DCH Power Profile
        3. FACH Power Profile
      5. POWER SAVING TECHNIQUES
        1. Dynamic Power Setting (DPS)
        2. Macro Diversity Combining (MDC)
        3. Rate Splitting (RS)
        4. Usage of Longer TTI and Space Diversity (LTTI)
        5. Mixed Usage of Multiple DCH Channels and FACH (MDF)
      6. EXISTING RADIO BEARER SELECTION MECHANISMS
        1. MBMS Counting Mechanism (TS 25.346)
        2. MBMS PTP/PTM Switching Algorithm (TR 25.922)
        3. Mechanism Proposed in 3GPP TSG RAN1 R1-02-1240
        4. Novel Mechanism for PTP and PTM Bearers Combination
          1. Parameters
          2. Architecture and Functionality
            1. Initialization Phase
            2. Parameter Retrieval Phase
            3. Radio Bearer Selection Phase
            4. Radio Bearer Assignment Phase
          3. Comparison with 3GPP Approaches
          4. Managing Parallel MBMS Sessions
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
  9. Compilation of References
  10. About the Contributors