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Wireless Device-to-Device Communications and Networks

Book Description

Covering the fundamental theory together with the state-of-the-art in research and development, this practical guide provides the techniques needed to design, analyze, and optimize device-to-device (D2D) communications in wireless networking. With an ever-increasing demand for higher data rate wireless access, D2D communication is set to become a key feature supported by next generation cellular networks. This book introduces D2D-based wireless communications from the physical, MAC, network, and application layer perspectives, providing all the key background information before moving on to discuss real-world applications as well as potential future developments. Key topics are discussed in detail, such as dynamic resource sharing (for example of spectrum and power) between cellular and ad hoc D2D communications to accommodate larger volumes of traffic and provide better service to users. Readers will understand the practical challenges of resource management, optimization, security, standardization, and network topology, and learn how the design principles are applied in practice.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half-title page
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Part I: Introduction
    1. 1. Basics of D2D communications
      1. 1.1 Overview of D2D communications
      2. 1.2 Key technologies for D2D communications
        1. 1.2.1 Configuration of D2D communications
        2. 1.2.2 Device synchronization and discovery
        3. 1.2.3 Mode selection
        4. 1.2.4 Spectrum sharing and resource management
        5. 1.2.5 Power control
        6. 1.2.6 Uplink and downlink transmission with MIMO
      3. 1.3 Device-to-device local area networks
      4. 1.4 D2D direct: a simulation scenario
      5. 1.5 Issues and challenges in D2D communications
      6. 1.6 Chapter summary
  9. Part II: Techniques for modeling and analysis of D2D communications
    1. 2. Optimization
      1. 2.1 Constrained optimization
        1. 2.1.1 Basic definition
        2. 2.1.2 The Lagrangian method
        3. 2.1.3 Optimality
        4. 2.1.4 The primal–dual algorithm
      2. 2.2 Linear programming and the simplex algorithm
      3. 2.3 Convex programming
        1. 2.3.1 Quadratic, geometric, and semidefinite programming
        2. 2.3.2 The gradient method, the Newton method, and their variations
        3. 2.3.3 The alternating-direction method-of-multipliers algorithm
      4. 2.4 Nonlinear programming
        1. 2.4.1 The barrier/interior-point method
        2. 2.4.2 The Monte Carlo method
        3. 2.4.3 Simulated annealing
        4. 2.4.4 Genetic algorithms
        5. 2.4.5 Swarm intelligence
      5. 2.5 Integer programming
        1. 2.5.1 General formulation
        2. 2.5.2 The knapsack problem
        3. 2.5.3 Relaxation and decomposition
        4. 2.5.4 An enumerative technique: the branch-and-bound approach
        5. 2.5.5 Cutting planes
        6. 2.5.6 Benders’ decomposition
      6. 2.6 Dynamic programming and Markov decision processes
        1. 2.6.1 A general definition of dynamic programming
        2. 2.6.2 Markov decision processes
      7. 2.7 Stochastic programming
        1. 2.7.1 Problem definition
        2. 2.7.2 Chance constraint, sampling method, and variation
        3. 2.7.3 Recourse
      8. 2.8 Sparse optimization
        1. 2.8.1 Sparse-optimization models
        2. 2.8.2 A list of sparse-optimization algorithms
    2. 3. Game theory
      1. 3.1 Basics of game theory
      2. 3.2 The noncooperative static game
        1. 3.2.1 The normal form of a static game
        2. 3.2.2 Nash equilibrium, Pareto optimality, and mixed strategy
        3. 3.2.3 Social optimum: price of anarchy and referee
      3. 3.3 The dynamic game
        1. 3.3.1 Sequential games, and games in extensive form
        2. 3.3.2 Repeated games
        3. 3.3.3 Stochastic games
        4. 3.3.4 Differential control/games
      4. 3.4 Cooperative game theory – bargaining games
        1. 3.4.1 Bargaining solutions
        2. 3.4.2 Applications of bargaining games
      5. 3.5 Cooperative game theory – coalitional games
        1. 3.5.1 Characteristic function and core
        2. 3.5.2 Fairness
        3. 3.5.3 The merge/split algorithm
      6. 3.6 Matching theory
        1. 3.6.1 One-to-one matching
        2. 3.6.2 Many-to-one matching
        3. 3.6.3 Many-to-many matching
      7. 3.7 Auction theory
        1. 3.7.1 Auction basics
        2. 3.7.2 Mechanism design
        3. 3.7.3 VCG auctions
        4. 3.7.4 Share auctions
        5. 3.7.5 Double auctions
      8. 3.8 Contract theory
        1. 3.8.1 Information and incentives
        2. 3.8.2 Bilateral contracting
      9. 3.9 Bayesian games with imperfect information
        1. 3.9.1 Bayesian games in normal form
        2. 3.9.2 Bayesian games in extensive games
      10. 3.10 Other special types of games
        1. 3.10.1 Zero-sum games
        2. 3.10.2 Potential games
        3. 3.10.3 Super-modular games
        4. 3.10.4 Correlated equilibrium
        5. 3.10.5 Satisfaction equilibrium
  10. Part III: Resource management, cross-layer design, and security for D2D communications
    1. 4. Mode selection and resource allocation for D2D communications underlaying cellular networks
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 LTE-A networks and D2D communications
        1. 4.2.1 An overview of LTE-A networks
        2. 4.2.2 D2D communications in LTE-A networks
      3. 4.3 Research issues and challenges for D2D communications underlaying LTE-A networks
        1. 4.3.1 Mode selection
        2. 4.3.2 Transmission scheduling
        3. 4.3.3 Power control and power efficiency
        4. 4.3.4 Distributed resource allocation
        5. 4.3.5 Coexistence with heterogeneous networks
        6. 4.3.6 Cooperative communications
        7. 4.3.7 Network coding
        8. 4.3.8 Interference cancellation and advanced receivers
        9. 4.3.9 Multiple-antenna technology and multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) schemes
        10. 4.3.10 Mobility management and handoff
        11. 4.3.11 Robust resource allocation
      4. 4.4 The state of the art of D2D communications underlaying LTE/LTE-A networks
        1. 4.4.1 Mode selection
        2. 4.4.2 Power control
        3. 4.4.3 Distributed resource allocation
        4. 4.4.4 Interference cancellation
        5. 4.4.5 MIMO-based D2D communications
      5. 4.5 Mode selection based on a coalitional game model
        1. 4.5.1 The system model and assumptions
        2. 4.5.2 The coalitional game model
        3. 4.5.3 Strategies of the D2D links
        4. 4.5.4 Coalition formation
        5. 4.5.5 Numerical results
      6. 4.6 Joint mode selection and resource allocation for D2D communications
        1. 4.6.1 The network model
        2. 4.6.2 Feasible access patterns
        3. 4.6.3 Constraints of feasible access patterns
        4. 4.6.4 Column generation for joint mode selection and resource allocation
      7. 4.7 Numerical results
      8. 4.8 Chapter summary
    2. 5. Interference coordination for D2D communications
      1. 5.1 Interference analysis
      2. 5.2 Interference avoidance
      3. 5.3 Power control
        1. 5.3.1 Network-controlled power control
        2. 5.3.2 Power control using MIMO
      4. 5.4 Chapter summary
    3. 6. Subchannel allocation and time-domain scheduling for D2D communications
      1. 6.1 Subchannel allocation
        1. 6.1.1 Centralized (operator-managed) subchannel allocation
      2. 6.2 Time-domain scheduling
        1. 6.2.1 Stackelberg game-based scheduling in the time domain
        2. 6.2.2 Joint frequency–time-domain scheduling
      3. 6.3 Capacity offloading through D2D local area networks
      4. 6.4 Chapter summary
    4. 7. Cross-layer design for device-to-device communication
      1. 7.1 An overview of cross-layer design
        1. 7.1.1 Definitions and approaches
        2. 7.1.2 The cross-layer coordination model
        3. 7.1.3 Cross-layer implementation
        4. 7.1.4 Cross-layer design considerations and challenges
      2. 7.2 Cross-layer optimization
        1. 7.2.1 Opportunistic scheduling
        2. 7.2.2 OFDMA wireless networks
        3. 7.2.3 Cross-layer congestion control and scheduling
      3. 7.3 Cross-layer design for vehicular ad-hoc networks
        1. 7.3.1 Physical and MAC layers
        2. 7.3.2 Physical and network layers
        3. 7.3.3 Network and MAC layers
        4. 7.3.4 Transport, network, and MAC layers
      4. 7.4 Cross-layer design in D2D communication
        1. 7.4.1 Information correlation routing
        2. 7.4.2 Cross-layer routing in wireless sensor networks
        3. 7.4.3 Cross-layer distributed scheduling for peer-to-peer video streaming
      5. 7.5 Chapter summary
    5. 8. Security for D2D communications
      1. 8.1 Location security
        1. 8.1.1 Problem overview
        2. 8.1.2 Literature
      2. 8.2 Data-transmission security
        1. 8.2.1 The system model and problem formulation
        2. 8.2.2 Graph-based resource allocation
        3. 8.2.3 Simulation results
      3. 8.3 Chapter summary
  11. Part IV: Applications of D2D communications
    1. 9. Vehicular ad-hoc networks
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Vehicular networks
        1. 9.2.1 ITS applications
        2. 9.2.2 Vehicular network architecture and IEEE 802.11p
        3. 9.2.3 VANETs
      3. 9.3 D2D communications in vehicular networks
        1. 9.3.1 An intracluster device-to-device retransmission algorithm
        2. 9.3.2 BitTorrent-based wireless access in vehicular networks
        3. 9.3.3 Problem formulation
        4. 9.3.4 Data transfer from roadside units
        5. 9.3.5 Optimal channel access in vehicular networks
      4. 9.4 Chapter summary
    2. 10. Mobile social networks
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 An overview of mobile social networks
        1. 10.2.1 Types and components of mobile social networks
        2. 10.2.2 Social-network analysis
      3. 10.3 Community detection
        1. 10.3.1 Dynamic community detection
        2. 10.3.2 Mobility-based distributed community detection
        3. 10.3.3 Influence-based community detection
      4. 10.4 Social-aware data routing and dissemination
        1. 10.4.1 A routing protocol based on betweenness and similarity
        2. 10.4.2 A routing protocol based on community and degree centrality
        3. 10.4.3 Friendship-based routing
        4. 10.4.4 Geocommunity-based routing
      5. 10.5 Cooperative content delivery in mobile social networks
        1. 10.5.1 Mobile social networks with content providers and a network operator
        2. 10.5.2 The Markov chain model of content forwarding among mobile nodes
        3. 10.5.3 Performance measures
        4. 10.5.4 Controlled coalitional-game formulation
        5. 10.5.5 Performance evaluation
      6. 10.6 Chapter summary
    3. 11. Machine-to-machine (M2M) communications
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 Machine-to-machine (M2M) communications
        1. 11.2.1 Machine-type communications in LTE-A networks
        2. 11.2.2 An overview of the random-access procedure
      3. 11.3 RACH overload control mechanisms
        1. 11.3.1 Grouping of MTC devices
        2. 11.3.2 An access-class-barring-based scheme
        3. 11.3.3 Separation of random-access preambles
        4. 11.3.4 Dynamic allocation of random-access resources
        5. 11.3.5 A qualitative comparison of random-access overload control approaches
      4. 11.4 Performance modeling of the random-access channel (RACH)
        1. 11.4.1 The network model
        2. 11.4.2 MTC user equipment and its packet transmission
        3. 11.4.3 Coexistence of MTC and H2H user equipments
        4. 11.4.4 A queueing model
        5. 11.4.5 The state space and transition matrix for queueing at each MTC UE
        6. 11.4.6 Queueing performance measures at an MTC user equipment
        7. 11.4.7 An iterative algorithm
        8. 11.4.8 Numerical results
      5. 11.5 Chapter summary
  12. Part V: Standardization of D2D communications
    1. 12. Network-controlled D2D over LTE/LTE-A
      1. 12.1 D2D communications in LTE-A networks
      2. 12.2 Requirements and working assumptions
        1. 12.2.1 Operational requirements
        2. 12.2.2 Charging requirements
        3. 12.2.3 Security requirements
      3. 12.3 Key working scenarios
      4. 12.4 LTE-A architecture enhancements to support proximity-based services (ProSe)
      5. 12.5 Performance evaluation
      6. 12.6 Application in proximity services
        1. 12.6.1 Proximity discovery over E-UTRA
        2. 12.6.2 Proximity communications over E-UTRA
        3. 12.6.3 Public-safety services
      7. 12.7 Chapter summary
  13. References
  14. Index