You are previewing Windows Server® 2008 TCP/IP Protocols and Services.
O'Reilly logo
Windows Server® 2008 TCP/IP Protocols and Services

Book Description

This in-depth technical reference delivers must-know information on TCP/IP for any IT professional working with Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista operating systems. This comprehensive guide starts with the fundamentals, delivering coverage of TCP/IP protocols layer by layer to help build mastery of protocols and their implementation. It focuses on Internet layer protocols such as IP, ICMP, IGMP, and includes a preview of IPv6; transport layer protocols such as TCP and UDP; and application layer protocols such as DNS, DHCP, and WINS. Written by a leading TCP/IP author, plus peer reviews from experts on the Windows® Networking Team, this is the definitive guide to TCP/IP for Windows Server 2008. Features a companion CD with a fully searchable eBook and other resources.

Key Book Benefits

Provides practical and in-depth information on important protocols in the TCP/IP protocol suite and services for Windows Server 2008

Delivers comprehensive coverage of TCP/IP protocols layer by layer for building mastery

Includes ample illustrations, tables, and example traces of TCP/IP packets

Features a companion CD with a fully searchable eBook and other resources

Table of Contents

  1. Windows Server® 2008 TCP/IP Protocols and Services
    1. List of Figures
    2. List of Tables
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Introduction
      1. Who Should Read This Book
      2. What You Should Know Before Reading This Book
      3. Organization of This Book
      4. Network Monitor Traces
      5. About the Companion CD-ROM
        1. Disclaimer: Third-Party Sites
      6. System Requirements
      7. A Special Note to Teachers and Instructors
        1. What Is New in This Edition
      8. Find Additional Content Online
      9. Support
    5. I. The Network Interface Layer
      1. 1. Local Area Network (LAN) Technologies
        1. LAN Encapsulations
        2. Ethernet
          1. Ethernet II
            1. Ethernet II Header and Trailer
            2. The Ethernet Interframe Gap
            3. Ethernet Minimum Frame Size
          2. IEEE 802.3
            1. IEEE 802.3 Header and Trailer
            2. IEEE 802.2 LLC Header
            3. Differentiating an Ethernet II Frame from an IEEE 802.3 Frame
          3. IEEE 802.3 SNAP
          4. Special Bits on Ethernet MAC Addresses
            1. The Individual/Group Bit
            2. The Universal/Locally Administered Bit
            3. Routing Information Indicator Bit
        3. Token Ring
          1. IEEE 802.5
            1. IEEE 802.5 Header and Trailer
            2. IEEE 802.2 LLC Header
          2. IEEE 802.5 SNAP
          3. Special Bits on Token Ring MAC Addresses
            1. The Individual/Group Bit
            2. The Universal/Locally Administered Bit
            3. Functional Address Bit
            4. Routing Information Indicator Bit
        4. FDDI
          1. FDDI Frame Format
            1. FDDI Header and Trailer
            2. IEEE 802.2 LLC Header
            3. Payload
          2. FDDI SNAP
          3. Special Bits on FDDI MAC Addresses
        5. IEEE 802.11
          1. IEEE 802.11 Frame Format
            1. IEEE 802.11 Header and Trailer
            2. IEEE 802.2 LLC Header
            3. Payload
            4. Frame Control Field
          2. IEEE 802.11 SNAP
        6. Summary
      2. 2. Wide Area Network (WAN) Technologies
        1. WAN Encapsulations
        2. Point-to-Point Protocol
          1. PPP on Asynchronous Links
          2. PPP on Synchronous Links
          3. PPP Maximum Receive Unit
          4. PPP Multilink Protocol
        3. Frame Relay
          1. Frame Relay Encapsulation
            1. Frame Relay Address Field
        4. Summary
      3. 3. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
        1. Overview of ARP
          1. The ARP or Neighbor Cache
        2. ARP Frame Structure
        3. ARP in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista
          1. Address Resolution
            1. Frame Padding and Ethernet
            2. The Neighbor Cache
            3. Updating the Neighbor Cache
          2. Duplicate Address Detection
            1. Offending Node Runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Vista
            2. Offending Node Runs a Previous Version of Windows
            3. Duplicate Address Detection and DHCP
            4. Duplicate Address Detection and the Defending Node
          3. Neighbor Unreachability Detection
            1. Neighbor Cache Entry States
          4. ARP Registry Values
        4. Inverse ARP (InARP)
        5. Proxy ARP
        6. Summary
      4. 4. Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
        1. PPP Connection Process
          1. Phase 1: PPP Configuration Using LCP
          2. Phase 2: Authentication
          3. Phase 3: Callback
          4. Phase 4: Protocol Configuration Using NCPs
        2. PPP Connection Termination
        3. Link Control Protocol
          1. LCP Options
          2. LCP Negotiation Process
        4. PPP Authentication Protocols
          1. PAP
          2. CHAP
          3. MS-CHAP v2
          4. EAP
            1. EAP-MS-CHAP v2
            2. EAP-TLS
            3. PEAP
        5. Callback and the Callback Control Protocol
        6. Network Control Protocols
          1. IPCP
          2. Compression Control Protocol
            1. MPPE and MPPC
          3. Encryption Control Protocol
        7. Network Monitor Example
        8. PPP over Ethernet
          1. PPPoE Discovery Stage
          2. PPPoE Session Stage
        9. Summary
    6. II. Internet Layer Protocols
      1. 5. Internet Protocol (IP)
        1. Introduction to IP
          1. IP Services
          2. IP MTU
        2. The IP Datagram
        3. The IP Header
          1. Version
          2. Internet Header Length
          3. Type Of Service
            1. RFC 791 Definition of the TOS Field
            2. Precedence
            3. Delay
            4. Throughput
            5. Reliability
            6. Cost
            7. Reserved
            8. RFC 2474 Definition of the TOS Field
            9. Explicit Congestion Notification and the TOS Field
          4. Total Length
          5. Identification
          6. Flags
          7. Fragment Offset
          8. Time-To-Live
            1. Setting the TTL with Ping
          9. Protocol
          10. Header Checksum
          11. Source Address
          12. Destination Address
          13. Options and Padding
        4. Fragmentation
          1. Fragmentation Fields
            1. Identification
            2. Don’t Fragment Flag
            3. More Fragments Flag
            4. Fragment Offset
          2. Fragmentation Example
          3. Reassembly Example
          4. Fragmenting a Fragment
          5. Avoiding Fragmentation
            1. Setting the DF Flag with Ping
            2. Setting the IP Payload Size with Ping
            3. Using Ping to Do Source Fragmentation
            4. Fragmentation and Translational Bridging Environments
          6. Fragmentation and TCP/IP for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista
        5. IP Options
          1. Copy
          2. Option Class
          3. Option Number
            1. End Of Option List
            2. No Operation
            3. Record Route
            4. Record Route Processing
            5. Setting the Record Route Option with Ping
          4. Strict and Loose Source Routing
            1. Strict Source Route Option
            2. Setting the Strict Source Route Option with Ping
            3. Loose Source Route Option
            4. Setting the Loose Source Route Option with Ping
          5. IP Router Alert
          6. Internet Timestamp
            1. Setting the Internet Timestamp Option with Ping
        6. Summary
      2. 6. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
        1. ICMP Message Structure
        2. ICMP Messages
          1. ICMP Echo and Echo Reply
          2. ICMP Destination Unreachable
            1. Network Monitor Example
          3. PMTU Discovery
            1. Adjusting the PMTU
            2. Routers That Do Not Support PMTU
          4. ICMP Source Quench
          5. ICMP Redirect
          6. ICMP Router Discovery
            1. ICMP Router Advertisement
            2. ICMP Router Solicitation
          7. ICMP Time Exceeded
          8. ICMP Parameter Problem
          9. ICMP Address Mask Request and Address Mask Reply
        3. Ping.exe Tool
          1. Ping Options
            1. Network Monitor Example
        4. Tracert.exe Tool
          1. Network Monitor Example
          2. Tracert Options
        5. Pathping.exe Tool
          1. Pathping Options
        6. Summary
      3. 7. Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
        1. Introduction to IP Multicast and IGMP
          1. IP Multicasting Overview
          2. Host Support
            1. Sending IP Multicast Traffic
            2. Receiving IP Multicast Traffic
          3. Router Support
          4. The Multicast-Enabled IP Internetwork
          5. The Internet’s Multicast-Enabled Backbone
        2. IGMP Message Structure
          1. IGMP Version 1 (IGMPv1)
            1. Host Membership Report
            2. Host Membership Query
            3. IGMPv1 Message Structure
            4. Network Monitor Examples
          2. IGMP Version 2 (IGMPv2)
            1. The Leave Group Message
            2. The Group-Specific Query Message
            3. The Multicast Querier
            4. IGMPv2 Message Structure
            5. Network Monitor Example
          3. IGMP Version 3 (IGMPv3)
            1. IGMPv3 Host Membership Query
            2. IGMPv3 Host Membership Report
        3. IGMP in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista
          1. TCP/IP Protocol
          2. Routing And Remote Access Service
            1. Interfaces in IGMP Router Mode
            2. Interfaces in IGMP Proxy Mode
              1. Multicast Group Members on IGMP Router Mode Interfaces
              2. Multicast Sources on IGMP Router Mode Interfaces
        4. Summary
      4. 8. Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
        1. The Disadvantages of IPv4
        2. IPv6 Addressing
          1. Basics of IPv6 Address Syntax
          2. Types of Addresses
          3. Types of Unicast Addresses
            1. Global
            2. Link-Local Addresses
            3. Unique Local Addresses
          4. IPv6 Interface Identifiers
          5. DNS Support
        3. Core Protocols of IPv6
          1. IPv6
          2. ICMPv6
          3. Neighbor Discovery
          4. Multicast Listener Discovery
        4. Differences Between IPv4 and IPv6
        5. Summary
    7. III. Transport Layer Protocols
      1. 9. User Datagram Protocol
        1. Introduction to UDP
        2. Uses for UDP
        3. The UDP Message
        4. The UDP Header
        5. UDP Ports
        6. The UDP Pseudo Header
        7. Summary
      2. 10. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Basics
        1. Introduction to TCP
        2. The TCP Segment
        3. The TCP Header
        4. TCP Ports
        5. TCP Flags
        6. The TCP Pseudo Header
        7. TCP Urgent Data
        8. TCP Options
          1. End Of Option List and No Operation
          2. Maximum Segment Size Option
          3. TCP Window Scale Option
          4. Selective Acknowledgment Option
            1. The SACK-Permitted Option
            2. The SACK Option
          5. TCP Timestamps Option
        9. Summary
      3. 11. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Connections
        1. The TCP Connection
        2. TCP Connection Establishment
          1. Segment 1: The Synchronize (SYN) Segment
          2. Segment 2: The SYN-ACK Segment
          3. Segment 3: The ACK Segment
          4. Results of the TCP Connection
        3. TCP Half-Open Connections
        4. TCP Connection Maintenance
        5. TCP Connection Termination
          1. Segment 1: The FIN-ACK from TCP Peer 1
          2. Segment 2: The ACK from TCP Peer 2
          3. Segment 3: The FIN-ACK from TCP Peer 2
          4. Segment 4: The ACK from TCP Peer 1
        6. TCP Connection Reset
        7. TCP Connection States
          1. Controlling the TIME WAIT state in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista
        8. Summary
      4. 12. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Data Flow
        1. Basic TCP Data Flow Behavior
        2. TCP Acknowledgments
          1. Delayed Acknowledgments
          2. Cumulative for Contiguous Data
          3. Selective for Noncontiguous Data
        3. TCP Sliding Windows
          1. Send Window
            1. Sent/ACKed Data
            2. Sent/UnACKed Data
            3. Unsent/Inside Data
            4. Unsent/Outside
            5. Sliding the Send Window
            6. Zero Send Window
          2. Receive Window
            1. Rcvd/ACKed/Retr Data
            2. Rcvd/ACKed/NotRetr Data
            3. Rcvd/UnACKed Data
            4. NotRcvd/Inside Data
            5. NotRcvd/Outside Data
            6. Sliding the Receive Window
            7. Shrinking the Window
          3. Receive Window Auto-Tuning
        4. Small Segments
          1. The Nagle Algorithm
          2. Silly Window Syndrome
            1. Receiver-Side SWS Avoidance
            2. Sender-Side SWS Avoidance
        5. Sender-Side Flow Control
          1. Slow Start Algorithm
          2. Congestion Avoidance Algorithm
          3. Compound TCP
          4. Explicit Congestion Notification
            1. ECN Example
            2. ECN Support in Windows
          5. Limited Transmit
        6. Summary
      5. 13. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Retransmission and Time-Out
        1. Retransmission Time-Out and Round-Trip Time
          1. Congestion Collapse
        2. Retransmission Behavior
          1. Retransmission Behavior for New Connections
          2. Dead Gateway Detection
          3. Forward RTO-Recovery
          4. Using the Selective Acknowledgment (SACK) TCP Option
            1. Using SACKs to Indicate Duplicate Received Packets
        3. Calculating the RTO
          1. Using the TCP Timestamps Option
          2. Karn’s Algorithm
          3. Karn’s Algorithm and the Timestamps Option
        4. Fast Retransmit and Fast Recovery
          1. Fast Recovery
            1. SACK-based Loss Recovery
            2. NewReno Support for Fast Recovery
        5. Summary
    8. IV. Application Layer Protocols and Services
      1. 14. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
        1. DHCP Messages
          1. DHCP Message Format
          2. DHCP Options
        2. DHCP Message Exchanges
          1. Obtaining an Initial Lease
          2. Renewing a Lease
          3. Changing Subnets
          4. Detecting Unauthorized DHCP Servers
          5. Updating DNS Entries
        3. Summary
      2. 15. Domain Name System
        1. DNS Messages
          1. DNS Name Query Request and Name Query Response Messages
          2. DNS Update and Update Response Messages
        2. DNS Message Exchanges
          1. Resolving Names to Addresses
          2. Resolving Addresses to Names
          3. Resolving Aliases
          4. Dynamically Updating DNS
          5. Transferring Zone Information Between DNS Servers
        3. Summary
      3. 16. Windows Internet Name Service (WINS)
        1. NetBT Name Service Messages
          1. NetBIOS Name Service Messages
          2. NetBIOS Name Representation
          3. Question RR Format
        2. WINS Client and Server Message Exchanges
          1. Resolving NetBIOS Names to IP Addresses
          2. Registering NetBIOS Names
          3. Refreshing NetBIOS Names
          4. Releasing NetBIOS Names
        3. Summary
      4. 17. Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)
        1. RADIUS Messages
          1. RADIUS Message Structure
          2. RADIUS Attributes
          3. Vendor-Specific Attributes
        2. RADIUS Message Exchanges
          1. Authentication of Network Access
          2. Accounting of Network Access
          3. RADIUS Proxy Forwarding
        3. Summary
      5. 18. Internet Protocol Security (IPsec)
        1. IPsec Headers
          1. Authentication Header
            1. AH Transport Mode
            2. AH Tunnel Mode
          2. Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
            1. ESP Transport Mode
            2. ESP Tunnel Mode
        2. IPsec and Security Associations
          1. ISAKMP SA
          2. IPsec SA
          3. Security Parameters Index
          4. Creating SAs
            1. Main Mode
            2. Quick Mode
        3. Internet Key Exchange
        4. ISAKMP Message Structure
          1. ISAKMP Header
          2. SA Payload
          3. Proposal Payload
          4. Transform Payload
          5. Vendor ID Payload
          6. Nonce Payload
          7. Key Exchange Payload
          8. Notification Payload
          9. Delete Payload
          10. Identification Payload
          11. Hash Payload
          12. Certificate Request Payload
          13. Certificate Payload
          14. Signature Payload
        5. Main Mode Negotiation
        6. Quick Mode Negotiation
        7. Authenticated Internet Protocol (AuthIP)
          1. AuthIP Messages
          2. AuthIP and IKE Coexistence
            1. Examples of AuthIP and IKE Negotiation
              1. Two Windows Vista-based IPsec Peers in Request Mode
              2. Windows Vista-based IPsec Peer in Request Mode and a Windows XP-based IPsec Peer in Request Mode
              3. Windows Vista-based IPsec Peer in Request Mode and a Windows XP-based IPsec Peer in Require Mode
        8. IPsec NAT Traversal
        9. Summary
      6. 19. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
        1. PPTP
          1. PPTP Data Encapsulation
          2. PPTP Control Connection
            1. PPTP Control Connection Creation
            2. PPTP Control Connection Maintenance
            3. PPTP Control Connection Termination
        2. L2TP/IPsec
          1. L2TP/IPsec Data Encapsulation
          2. L2TP Control Connection
            1. L2TP Connection Creation
            2. L2TP Connection Maintenance
            3. L2TP Connection Termination
        3. SSTP
          1. SSTP-based VPN Connection Creation Process
        4. Summary
    9. A. Internet Protocol (IP) Addressing
      1. Types of IP Addresses
      2. Expressing IP Addresses
        1. Converting from Binary to Decimal
        2. Converting from Decimal to Binary
        3. IP Addresses in the IP Header
      3. Unicast IP Addresses
        1. A History Lesson: IP Address Classes
          1. Class A
          2. Class B
          3. Class C
          4. Additional Address Classes
            1. Class D
            2. Class E
        2. Rules for Enumerating Address Prefixes
        3. Rules for Enumerating Usable Host IDs
        4. Subnets and the Subnet Mask
          1. The Subnet Mask
          2. Subnet Masks in Dotted Decimal Representation
          3. Prefix Length Representation of Subnet Masks
          4. Expressing Address Prefixes
          5. Determining the Address Prefix
        5. How to Subnet
          1. Step 1: Determining the Number of Host Bits
          2. Step 2: Defining the Subnetted Address Prefixes (Binary Method)
            1. Step 2a: Enumerating the Subnetted Address Prefixes (Binary)
            2. Step 2b: Enumerating IP Address Ranges for Each Subnetted Address Prefix (Binary)
          3. Step 3: Defining the Subnetted Address Prefixes (Decimal Method)
            1. Step 3a: Enumerating the Subnetted Address Prefixes (Decimal)
            2. Step 3b: Enumerating IP Address Ranges for Each Subnetted Address Prefix (Decimal)
          4. All-Zeros and All-Ones Subnets
        6. Variable-Length Subnetting
          1. Example of Variable-Length Subnetting
            1. Reserve Half of the IP Addresses for Future Use
            2. Obtain Three Address Prefixes with up to 8190 IP Addresses
            3. Obtain 31 Address Prefixes with up to 254 IP Addresses
            4. Obtain 64 Address Prefixes with only 2 IP Addresses
          2. Variable-Length Subnetting and Routing
        7. Supernetting and CIDR
          1. Views on CIDR Allocation
            1. A Range of Class C Address prefixes
            2. An Address Space
          2. CIDR and Routing
        8. Public and Private Addresses
          1. Public Addresses
            1. Illegal or Overlapping Addresses
          2. Private Addresses
        9. Automatic Private IP Addressing
      4. IP Broadcast Addresses
        1. Network Broadcast
        2. Subnet Broadcast
        3. All-Subnets-Directed Broadcast
        4. Limited Broadcast
      5. IP Multicast Addresses
        1. Mapping IP Multicast Addresses to MAC Addresses
          1. Ethernet and Fiber Distributed Data Interface
          2. Token Ring
      6. Summary
    10. Glossary
    11. Bibliography
      1. DHCP
      2. DNS
      3. General Networking Concepts and Technologies
      4. IP Security
      5. IP Version 6
      6. L2TP
      7. Microsoft Windows Architecture
      8. Microsoft Windows Networking Technologies
      9. Network Security
      10. PPP
      11. RADIUS
      12. TCP/IP
      13. Virtual Private Networks
    12. B. Joseph Davies
    13. C. System Requirements
    14. Index