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Web Standards:Mastering HTML5, CSS3, and XML, Second Edition

Book Description

Web Standards: Mastering HTML5, CSS3, and XML provides solutions to the most common web design problems, and gives you a deep understanding of web standards and how they can be implemented to improve your web sites. You will learn how to develop fully standards-compliant, mobile-friendly, and search engine-optimized web sites that are robust, fast, and easy to update while providing excellent user experience and interoperability. The book covers all major web standards for markup, style sheets, web typography, web syndication, semantic annotations, and accessibility. This edition has been fully updated with the latest in web standards, including the finalized HTML5 vocabulary and the full list of CSS3 properties.

Web Standards: Mastering HTML5, CSS3, and XML is also a comprehensive guide to current and future standards for the World Wide Web, demonstrating the implementation of new technologies to address the constantly growing user expectations. Web Standards: Mastering HTML5, CSS3, and XML presents step-by-step guides based on solid design principles and best practices, and shows the most common web development tools and web design frameworks. You will master HTML5 and its XML serialization, XHTML5, the new structuring and multimedia elements, the most important HTML5 APIs, and understand the standardization process of HTML 5.1, HTML 5.2, and future HTML5 versions.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents at a Glance
  5. Contents
  6. About the Author
  7. About the Technical Reviewer
  8. Preface
  9. Part 1: Web Standards
    1. Chapter 1: Introduction to Web Standards
      1. The Basic Concepts
      2. The Role of Standardization
        1. The Cost of Nonstandardized Markup
        2. Benefits of Standard-Compliant Markup
      3. Development and Announcement of Standards
        1. W3C
        2. WHATWG
        3. ERCIM
        4. IETF
        5. Ecma International
        6. Unicode Consortium
        7. DCMI
        8. IANA
        9. OASIS
        10. ISO
      4. Standards Promotion and Distribution
        1. Groups and Associations
        2. Staying Informed: Events and Courses
        3. Resources
      5. Types, Stages, and Status of Standards
      6. The Variety of Rendering Engines
        1. Trident
        2. Gecko
        3. KHTML
        4. WebKit
        5. Presto
        6. Blink
        7. Amaya
      7. Testing the Standard Support of Browsers
        1. Standard Compliance Tests
        2. Comprehensive Tests
      8. Standards vs. Quirks Modes, DOCTYPE Switching
      9. Problem Statement
        1. Limited Standards Support in Machine-Generated Code
      10. Major Concerns
        1. Bad Practices
        2. Lack of Support
        3. Unconcern
        4. Influential Sites
        5. Visual Appeal Over Functionality
        6. Well-Formedness
        7. Interoperability
        8. Eliminated Version Targeting
        9. Backward Compatibility
        10. Forward Compatibility
        11. Functionality
        12. Device Independence
        13. Separating Content from Presentation
        14. Usability
        15. Reliable Layout
        16. Code Optimality
      11. Summary
      12. References
    2. Chapter 2: Internationalization
      1. The Importance of Character Encoding
      2. Unicode
        1. Characters That Should Be Avoided In the Markup
        2. Formatting Characters Suitable Also for Markup
        3. Special Characters
        4. NFC Normalization Is Recommended
        5. Unicode Should Be Preferred
      3. Declaring Character Encoding for the Markup
        1. Encoding Declaration in the HTTP Header
        2. In-Document Declarations
      4. Declaring Character Encoding for CSS
        1. HTTP Header Declarations
        2. In-Document Declarations
      5. Escape Codes, Special Characters, and Symbols
        1. Numeric References
        2. Entity References
      6. Checking I18N
      7. Summary
      8. References
    3. Chapter 3: Markup Languages: More Than HTML5
      1. SGML Languages
        1. HTML
      2. XML Languages
        1. XHTML
      3. Version Overview
        1. HTML Versions and Variants
        2. XHTML Versions and Variants
        3. HTML5
        4. (X)HTML 5.1, (X)HTML 5.2, and Beyond
      4. Markup Syntaxes
        1. The HTML Syntax
        2. The XHTML Syntax and Restrictions
      5. Data Types
      6. Markup Elements
        1. Block vs. Inline Elements
      7. Attributes
        1. Global Attributes
        2. Event Handlers
      8. HTML Document Structure
        1. New Semantic Structuring Elements In HTML5
        2. Document Type Declaration
        3. XHTML Document Structure
      9. Moving from HTML to XHTML
      10. Specific Markup Languages
        1. SVG
        2. MathML
      11. Combinations, Profiles, and Mixed-Namespace Documents
        1. (X)HTML+RDFa
        2. XHTML-Print
        3. XHTML + MathML + SVG
      12. Choosing a Markup Language
        1. The Benefits of XHTML 1.x over HTML 4.x
        2. The Benefits of HTML5 over HTML 4.x and XHTML
      13. HAML: Markup Preprocessing
      14. Alternatives to Web Markup
      15. Summary
      16. References
    4. Chapter 4: Serving and Configuration
      1. The HTTP Header
      2. Internet Media Types (MIME)
        1. Common Media Types
      3. Serving XHTML
        1. Serving XHTML as HTML
        2. Serving XHTML as XML
      4. URIs, URLs, and URNs
        1. Persistent URIs
      5. Summary
      6. References
    5. Chapter 5: Style Sheets
      1. Cascading Style Sheets
        1. Levels, Profiles, and Modules
        2. Grammar and Conventions
        3. Implementation
        4. Display and Visibility
        5. Cascading
        6. Inheritance
        7. Scopes and Structure
        8. The Box Model
        9. Overview of CSS Properties
        10. Initial Property Values
        11. Default Styles of Rendering Engines
      2. XSL
        1. XSLT Style Sheets
      3. Combining CSS and XSL
      4. CSS Preprocessing
        1. Sass
        2. LESS
        3. Stylus
      5. Summary
      6. References
    6. Chapter 6: Scripting and Applications
      1. Client-Server Architectures
      2. Scripting and Standards Implementation
      3. Client-Side Development
        1. Ajax
        2. Flex
        3. HTML5 APIs
        4. Java Applets
        5. ECMAScript, JavaScript, and jQuery
        6. Silverlight
      4. Server-Side Development
        1. ColdFusion
        2. Java
        3. The .NET Framework
        4. Perl
        5. PHP
        6. Python
        7. Ruby
        8. SSJS
      5. Combinations of Client-Side and Server-Side Technologies
      6. Database Technologies
      7. Alternate Content and Fallback Mechanism for Scripts
      8. Summary
      9. References
    7. Chapter 7: Metadata and the Semantic Web
      1. The Semantic Web
        1. Structured Data
      2. Semantic Annotations
        1. The meta Tags
        2. Microformats
        3. HTML5 Microdata
      3. Knowledge Organization Systems: Schemas, Vocabularies, and Ontologies
        1. FOAF
        2. DOAC
        3. Dublin Core
      4. Knowledge Representation Standards
        1. Resource Description Framework (RDF)
        2. Web Ontology Language (OWL)
        3. Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS)
      5. Combining Metadata
        1. Combining Vocabularies in RDF
        2. Microdata and Microformats
        3. Dublin Core and vCard in RDF
        4. Dublin Core, vCard, and Math-Net
        5. DC, IMS, and ODRL
      6. Special Applications
        1. Image Metadata and XMP
        2. Metadata for YouTube Videos
      7. Metadata in SEO
      8. Summary
      9. References
    8. Chapter 8: Web Syndication
      1. News Feeds
      2. Really Simple Syndication
        1. Creating an RSS File
        2. Required Elements
        3. Optional Elements
        4. Subelements of the item Element
        5. Namespaces
        6. Styling RSS Feeds
      3. Atom
        1. Creating an Atom File
        2. Containers
        3. Metadata and Content Elements
      4. RSS or Atom?
      5. Summary
      6. References
    9. Chapter 9: Optimized Appearance
      1. Layout
        1. Positioning and Floating
        2. Tableless Web Layout
      2. Typography
        1. Misused Characters
        2. Web Fonts
      3. Embedding External Content
        1. Raster Graphics
        2. Vector Graphics
        3. Flash
        4. Audio
        5. Video
      4. Summary
      5. References
    10. Chapter 10: Accessibility
      1. Defining Web Accessibility
        1. WCAG 1.0
        2. WCAG 2.0
      2. Migrating from WCAG 1.0 to WCAG 2.0
        1. U.S. Section 508
      3. Semantic (X)HTML5 Elements and WAI-ARIA
      4. JavaScript Accessibility
      5. PDF Accessibility
      6. Flash Accessibility
      7. Accessibility of Mathematical Notations
      8. Summary
      9. References
  10. Part 2: Developing with Standards
    1. Chapter 11: Development Tools
      1. Feature Requirements
      2. Text Editors
      3. WYSIWYG Editors
      4. Content Management Systems and Bloggers
        1. Web Standards Support
      5. Specific Editors
        1. Semantic Editors and Reasoners
        2. MathType
        3. Markup Correctors
      6. Responsive Web Design Frameworks
        1. Foundation
        2. Bootstrap
        3. Skeleton
        4. Less Framework
        5. Gumby
      7. Browsers as Development Tools
        1. Validator and Debugger Plug-ins
        2. Testing Web Pages in Text Browsers
        3. View the Source Code
      8. Summary
      9. References
    2. Chapter 12: Putting It All Together
      1. Choosing the Relevant Standards
        1. Switching Between Standards
      2. Step-by-Step Development
        1. Starting from Scratch
        2. Links
        3. Images
        4. Lists
        5. Tables
        6. Drop-Down Selection Lists
        7. Forms
        8. Flash Content
        9. RSS News Feeds
      3. Making Web Sites Valid Through Redesign
      4. Summary
      5. Reference
    3. Chapter 13: Best Practices
      1. Appropriately Used Elements
      2. Content in Logical Order
      3. Mobile-Friendly Layout
      4. Sizes and Proportions
        1. Lengths in Relative Units
        2. Combine Units Properly
      5. Embedding External Content Properly
        1. Embedding YouTube Videos as Valid XHTML or HTML5
        2. Embedding Google Maps as Valid XHTML or HTML5
      6. Semantic Web Best Practices
      7. WAI-ARIA Best Practices
      8. Mobile Web Best Practices
      9. Providing Robustness
        1. Declaring Fallback Generic Fonts
        2. Declarations with Appropriate Specificity
      10. Testing
        1. Rendering in Multiple Browsers
        2. Readability Without Styles
      11. Summary
      12. References
    4. Chapter 14: Validation
      1. Concepts
      2. Markup Validation
      3. Validating XML
        1. Validating RDF/XML
        2. Validating News Feeds
      4. Validating CSS
      5. Validating I18N
      6. Validating Hyperlinks
      7. Validating Accessibility
      8. Validating Mobile-Friendliness
      9. Unified Validators
        1. W3C Unicorn
        2. Total Validator
        3. SortSite
      10. Extracting Semantic Content
      11. Expressing Validity
        1. W3C Icons
      12. Representing Technologies
      13. Summary
      14. References
    5. Chapter 15: Most Common Errors
      1. Common Serving Errors
      2. Common Markup Errors
        1. Incorrectly Used Elements
        2. Incorrect Structure
        3. Misused Tables
        4. Nonoptimal Code Length
        5. Element and Attribute Errors
        6. End Tag Errors
        7. Identifiers
      3. Common Style Sheet Errors
        1. Nonexisting Properties
        2. Nonexisting or Incorrectly Used Property Values
        3. Ignored Inheritance
        4. Color Errors
        5. Incorrect Locations
        6. Transparent Backgrounds
        7. Miscellaneous Errors
      4. Common News Feed Errors
      5. Common Script Errors
      6. Common Accessibility Errors
      7. Summary
      8. References
  11. Index