You are previewing Web Standards: Mastering HTML5, CSS3, and XML.

Web Standards: Mastering HTML5, CSS3, and XML

Cover of Web Standards: Mastering HTML5, CSS3, and XML by Leslie F. Sikos, Ph.D. Published by Apress
  1. Title
  2. Contents at a Glance
  3. Contents
  4. About the Author
  5. About the Technical Reviewer
  6. Preface
  7. PART 1: Web Standards
    1. CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Web Standards
      1. The Basic Concepts
      2. The Role of Standardization
      3. Development and Announcement of Standards
      4. Standards Promotion and Distribution
      5. Types, Stages, and Status of Standards
      6. The Variety of Rendering Engines
      7. Testing the Standard Support of Browsers
      8. Standards vs. Quirks Modes, DOCTYPE Switching
      9. Problem Statement
      10. Major Concerns
      11. Summary
      12. References
    2. CHAPTER 2: Internationalization
      1. The Importance of Character Encoding
      2. Unicode
      3. Declaring Character Encoding for the Markup
      4. Declaring Character Encoding for CSS
      5. Escape Codes, Special Characters, and Symbols
      6. Checking I18N
      7. Summary
      8. References
    3. CHAPTER 3: Markup Languages: More Than HTML5
      1. SGML Languages
      2. XML Languages
      3. Version Overview
      4. Markup Syntaxes
      5. Data Types
      6. Markup Elements
      7. Attributes
      8. HTML Document Structure
      9. Moving from HTML to XHTML
      10. Specific Markup Languages
      11. Combinations, Profiles, and Mixed-Namespace Documents
      12. Choosing a Markup Language
      13. Alternatives to Web Markup
      14. Summary
      15. References
    4. CHAPTER 4: Serving and Configuration
      1. The HTTP Header
      2. Internet Media Types (MIME)
      3. Serving XHTML
      4. URIs, URLs, and URNs
      5. Summary
      6. References
    5. CHAPTER 5: Style Sheets
      1. Cascading Style Sheets
      2. XSL
      3. Combining CSS and XSL
      4. Summary
      5. References
    6. CHAPTER 6: Scripting and Applications
      1. Client-Server Architectures
      2. Scripting and Standards Implementation
      3. Client-Side Development
      4. Server-Side Development
      5. Combinations of Client-Side and Server-Side Technologies
      6. Database Technologies
      7. Alternate Content and Fallback Mechanism for Scripts
      8. Summary
      9. References
    7. CHAPTER 7: Metadata and the Semantic Web
      1. The Semantic Web
      2. Wide Variety of Annotations and Syntaxes
      3. The meta Tags
      4. Schemas, Vocabularies, and Ontologies
      5. Combining Metadata
      6. Special Applications
      7. Metadata in SEO
      8. Summary
      9. References
    8. CHAPTER 8: Web Syndication
      1. News Feeds
      2. Really Simple Syndication
      3. Atom
      4. RSS or Atom?
      5. Summary
      6. References
    9. CHAPTER 9: Optimized Appearance
      1. Layout
      2. Typography
      3. Embedding External Content
      4. Summary
      5. References
    10. CHAPTER 10: Accessibility
      1. Defining Web Accessibility
      2. Migrating from WCAG 1.0 to WCAG 2.0
      3. Semantic (X)HTML5 Elements and WAI-ARIA
      4. JavaScript Accessibility
      5. PDF Accessibility
      6. Flash Accessibility
      7. Accessibility of Mathematical Notations
      8. Summary
      9. References
  8. PART 2: Developing Standards
    1. CHAPTER 11: Development Tools
      1. Feature Requirements
      2. Text Editors
      3. WYSIWYG Editors
      4. Content Management Systems and Bloggers
      5. Specific Editors
      6. Markup Correctors
      7. Browsers as Development Tools
      8. Summary
      9. References
    2. CHAPTER 12: Putting It All Together
      1. Choosing the Relevant Standards
      2. Step-by-Step Development
      3. Making Web Sites Valid Through Redesign
      4. Summary
      5. References
    3. CHAPTER 13: Best Practices
      1. Appropriately Used Elements
      2. Content in Logical Order
      3. Reliable Positioning
      4. Sizes and Proportions
      5. Embedding External Content Properly
      6. Semantic Web Best Practices
      7. WAI-ARIA Best Practices
      8. Mobile Web Best Practices
      9. Providing Robustness
      10. Testing
      11. Summary
      12. References
    4. CHAPTER 14: Validation
      1. Concepts
      2. Markup Validation
      3. Validating XML
      4. Validating CSS
      5. Validating I18N
      6. Validating Hyperlinks
      7. Validating Accessibility
      8. Validating Mobile-Friendliness
      9. Unified Validators
      10. Extracting Semantic Content
      11. Expressing Validity
      12. Representing Technologies
      13. Summary
      14. References
    5. CHAPTER 15: Most Common Errors
      1. Common Serving Errors
      2. Common Markup Errors
      3. Common Style Sheet Errors
      4. Common News Feed Errors
      5. Common Script Errors
      6. Common Accessibility Errors
      7. Summary
      8. References
  9. Index
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C H A P T E R  2

Internationalization

Web authors publish in all languages of the world, and several technologies support this multilingual Web. A key factor of correct character representation on the Web is applying the appropriate character encoding. Although this depends on server settings as well, web developers can effectively contribute to proper internationalization of the physical and syntactic structures of web documents. One of the very first steps in standard web site development is to apply national settings on both the file and document content level. Unicode can be considered as the ultimate encoding and is described from the standardistas’ point of view. The use of Unicode byte-order marks, which provide information about the ...

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