It is possible for an attacker to give malicious data to a normally well-behaved application to produce undesirable results.
Consider the case of a user who has not followed our advice in the previous section and has set up Microsoft Word as a helper application for files ending in the letters “.doc”. Normally there will be no problem at all. But if the unsuspecting user tries to download a particular Microsoft Word file, his computer might become infected with a virus. Or consider a user who is still using Version 3.0 of Microsoft’s Internet Explorer—the one with the big security hole. Normally this user will have no problems. But one day, he may chance upon a web page that exploits the bug and erases all of his files.
These sorts of attacks are called data-driven attacks, because the type and nature of the attack is determined by data that is downloaded to the user’s computer. Most Internet-based attacks are in fact data-driven attacks because they rely on downloading malicious data, rather than programs, to the victim’s computer.
The remainder of this section looks at a variety of data-driven attacks.
One of the simplest and most effective data-driven attacks is to give the user a message asking him to do something that is unsafe. These attacks are effective because most users are conditioned to follow whatever instructions appear on the computer screen. One unfortunate result of the web’s ease of publishing is that attackers can ...