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Web Design in a Nutshell

Book Description

Web Design in a Nutshell contains the nitty-gritty on everything you need to know to design Web pages. It's the good stuff, without the fluff, written and organized so that answers can be found quickly. Written by veteran Web designer Jennifer Niederst, this book provides quick access to the wide range of front-end technologies and techniques from which Web designers and authors must draw.

It is an excellent reference for HTML 4.0 tags (including tables, frames, and Cascading Style Sheets) with special attention given to browser support and platform idiosyncrasies. The HTML section is more than a reference work, though. It details strange behavior in tables, for instance, and gives ideas and workarounds for using tables and frames on your site. Web Design in a Nutshell also covers multimedia and interactivity, audio and video, and emerging technologies like Dynamic HTML, XML, embedded fonts, and internationalization.

The book includes:

  • Discussions of the Web environment, monitors, and browsers

  • A complete reference to HTML and Server Side Includes, including browser support for every tag and attribute

  • Chapters on creating GIF, JPEG and PNG graphics, including designing with the Web Palette

  • Information on multimedia and interactivity, including audio, video, Flash, Shockwave, and JavaScript

  • Detailed tutorial and reference on Cascading Style Sheets, including an appendix of browser compatibility information

  • Appendices detailing HTML tags, attributes, deprecated tags, proprietary tags, and CSS compatibility

Table of Contents

  1. Web Design in a Nutshell
    1. Preface
      1. Contents
        1. Part I
        2. Part II
        3. Part III
        4. Part IV
        5. Part V
        6. Part VI
      2. Conventions Used in This Book
      3. Request for Comments
      4. Acknowledgments
    2. I. The Web Environment
      1. 1. Designing for a Variety of Browsers
        1. Browsers
          1. Other Browsers
            1. Internet Explorer 4.0 on the Macintosh
            2. America Online browsers
            3. WebTV
            4. Opera
            5. Lynx
          2. Browser Usage Statistics
            1. Browser usage resources
            2. Browser usage overview
          3. Browser Features
        2. Design Strategies
          1. Lowest Common Denominator Design
          2. Current Version Design
          3. Splitting the Difference
          4. Something for Everyone
        3. Writing Good HTML
          1. HTML Validation Services
          2. HTML Editors as Validators
        4. Knowing Your Audience
        5. Considering Your Site’s Purpose
        6. Test! Test! Test!
      2. 2. Designing for a Variety of Displays
        1. Dealing with Unknown Monitor Resolutions
          1. Standard Monitor Sizes and Resolutions
          2. “Live” Space in the Browser Window
          3. Monitor Color Issues
        2. Fixed versus Flexible Web Page Design
          1. Flexible Design
            1. Advantages
            2. Disadvantages
            3. Creating flexible pages
          2. Fixed Design
            1. Advantages
            2. Disadvantages
            3. Creating fixed pages
            4. Pop-up windows
          3. Combination Pages
          4. Choosing a Page Size
            1. 640× 480 versus 800× 600
            2. The conventional wisdom
          5. Designing “Above the Fold”
        3. Accessibility
          1. Designing Accessible Pages
          2. HTML 4.0 Accessibility Features
          3. CSS2 Accessibility Features
          4. Where to Learn More
        4. Alternative Displays
          1. WebTV
          2. Hand-Held Devices
      3. 3. Web Design Principles for Print Designers
        1. Color on the Web
          1. Color on Computer Monitors
            1. RGB color
            2. Gamma
          2. Color in Browsers (The Web Palette)
            1. The Web Palette in numbers
            2. Reducing to the Web Palette
          3. Designing with the Web Palette
            1. Web authoring tools
            2. Photoshop swatches
            3. Online design utilities
          4. System Colors in Web Pages
        2. Graphics on the Web
          1. Graphic File Formats
            1. The ubiquitous GIF
            2. The handy JPEG
            3. The amazing PNG
          2. Image Resolution
            1. Image size
            2. Good-bye inches, hello pixels
          3. Be Aware of Gamma
            1. Adjusting gamma with Adobe Photoshop
            2. Previewing and adjusting gamma with Adobe ImageReady
          4. Be Aware of File Size
            1. Getting correct file sizes on a Macintosh
              1. Partition sizes
              2. The resource fork
              3. Photoshop files.
              4. Using Snitch
          5. Web Graphics Production Tips
            1. Work in RGB mode
            2. Resizing tips
            3. Use anti-aliased text
        3. Typography on the Web
          1. You Have Two Fonts
            1. Proportional font
            2. Fixed-width font
          2. Text in Graphics
            1. GIF text advantages
            2. GIF text disadvantages
          3. Why Specifying Type is Problematic
            1. Type size
            2. Selecting fonts for web pages
            3. Core fonts for the Web from Microsoft
          4. Embedded Fonts
      4. 4. A Beginner’s Guide to the Server
        1. Servers 101
          1. Popular Server Software
          2. Basic Server Functions
            1. Root directory
            2. Index files
            3. HTTP response header
            4. CGI scripts
        2. Introduction to Unix
          1. Logging In
          2. Directory Structures
            1. Absolute pathnames
            2. Relative pathnames
          3. Basic Unix Commands
            1. cd
            2. cp
            3. ls
            4. mkdir
            5. more
            6. mv
            7. pg
            8. passwd
            9. pwd
            10. rm
            11. rmdir
        3. File Naming Conventions
        4. Uploading Documents (FTP)
          1. The FTP Process
          2. Setting Permissions
            1. With an FTP program
            2. Using chmod in Unix
        5. File (MIME) Types
    3. II. HTML
      1. 5. HTML Overview
        1. HTML Editing Tools
        2. WYSIWYG Authoring Tools
          1. Should You Use Them?
            1. Pros
            2. Cons
          2. Some Available Tools
        3. Document Structure
        4. HTML Tags
          1. Containers
          2. Standalone Tags
          3. Attributes
          4. Nesting HTML Tags
        5. Information Browsers Ignore
        6. Tips on Good HTML Style
        7. Specifying Color in HTML
          1. Specifying Color by RGB Values
            1. The hexadecimal system
            2. Converting decimal to hexadecimal
            3. Hexadecimal values for Web Palette colors
          2. Specifying Colors by Name
            1. Color name cautions
          3. Coloring Page Elements
        8. Character Entities
        9. HTML Resources in This Book
      2. 6. Structural HTML Tags
        1. Summary of Structural Tags
          1. <base>
          2. <body>
          3. <head>
          4. <html>
          5. <link>
          6. <meta>
          7. <title>
        2. Setting Up an HTML Document
          1. The Document Header
            1. Titles
            2. Other header elements
          2. The Document Body
        3. Global Settings with the <body> Tag
          1. Colors
          2. Tiling Background Graphics
          3. Adjusting Browser Margins
        4. Using <meta> Tags
          1. The http - equiv Attribute
            1. Meta tags for client-pull
            2. Other uses
          2. Inserting Meta-Information with the name Attribute
            1. Meta tags for search engines
            2. Other uses
      3. 7. Formatting Text
        1. Summary of Text Tags
          1. Paragraphs and Headings (Block-Level Elements)
            1. <address>
            2. <blockquote>
            3. <div>
            4. <h1> through <h6>
            5. <p>
          2. Text Appearance (Inline Styles)
            1. <abbr>
            2. <acronym>
            3. <b>
            4. <basefont>
            5. <big>
            6. <blink>
            7. <cite>
            8. <code>
            9. <del>
            10. <em>
            11. <font>
            12. <i>
            13. <ins>
            14. <kbd>
            15. <q>
            16. <s>
            17. <samp>
            18. <small>
            19. <span>
            20. <strike>
            21. <strong>
            22. <sub>
            23. <sup>
            24. <tt>
            25. <u>
            26. <var>
          3. Spacing and Positioning
            1. <br>
            2. <center>
            3. <multicol>
            4. <nobr>
            5. <pre>
            6. <wbr>
          4. Lists
            1. <dir>
            2. <dl>
            3. <dd>
            4. <dt>
            5. <li>
            6. <menu>
            7. <ol>
            8. <ul>
        2. Working with HTML Text
          1. Paragraphs and Line Breaks
          2. Headings
        3. Inline Type Styles
          1. Logical Styles
          2. Physical Styles
        4. The <font> Tag
          1. Specifying Size with <font>
            1. <font size> advantage
            2. <font size> disadvantage
            3. Recommendations
          2. Specifying Fonts with <font>
            1. <font face> advantages
            2. <font face> disadvantages
        5. Lists
          1. Unordered (Bulleted) Lists
            1. Changing the bullet shape
          2. Ordered (Numbered) Lists
            1. Changing the numbering scheme
            2. Setting the first number
          3. Definition Lists
          4. Nesting Lists
            1. Nesting unordered lists
            2. Nesting ordered lists
        6. Layout Techniques with HTML
          1. Preformatted Text
          2. Preventing Line Breaks
          3. Centering Text Elements
            1. The align attribute
            2. The <center> tag
          4. Right and Left Alignment
          5. Creating Indents with HTML
            1. <blockquote>
            2. Creating indents with list elements
      4. 8. Creating Links
        1. Summary of Tags Related to Linking
          1. <a>
          2. <area>
          3. <map>
        2. Simple Hypertext Links
          1. Absolute URLs
          2. Relative URLs
        3. Linking Within a Document
          1. Naming a fragment
          2. Linking to a fragment
          3. Linking to a fragment in another document
          4. Using named anchors
        4. Affecting the Appearance of Links
          1. Setting Colors in <body>
          2. Specifying Color for a Specific Link
          3. Setting Global Link Colors with Style Sheets
          4. Turning Off Underlines
          5. Changing Status Bar Text with JavaScript
        5. Targeting Windows
        6. Imagemaps
          1. Creating Imagemaps
            1. Available tools
            2. Creating the map
          2. Client-Side Imagemaps
            1. Sample client-side imagemap
          3. Server-Side Imagemaps
            1. Sample map definition file (.map) file
            2. The HTML document
          4. When Not to Use Imagemaps
            1. Providing complete alternative text
            2. Rollover buttons
        7. Non-Web Links and Protocols
          1. Mail Link (mailto)
          2. FTP Link (ftp://)
          3. Other Links
      5. 9. Adding Images and Other Page Elements
        1. Summary of Object Placement Tags
          1. <applet>
          2. <bgsound>
          3. <embed>
          4. <hr>
          5. <img>
          6. <marquee>
          7. <noembed>
          8. <noscript>
          9. <object>
          10. <param>
          11. <script>
          12. <spacer>
        2. Horizontal Rules
          1. Specifying Thickness
          2. Specifying the Rule Length
          3. Rule Alignment
          4. Turning Off 3-D Shading
          5. Creative Combinations
        3. Image Basics
          1. How Graphics Can Be Used
          2. Acceptable Graphics Formats
        4. The <img> Tag and Its Attributes
          1. Linking Graphics
          2. Alternative Text
          3. Specifying Width and Height
            1. Resizing images
            2. Using width and height to preload images
          4. Vertical Alignment
          5. Horizontal Alignment
            1. Adding space around aligned images
            2. Stopping text wrap
          6. Tips for Placing Graphics
            1. Link to large images
            2. Reuse images whenever possible
            3. The lowsrc trick
        5. Adding Java Applets to the Page
        6. Adding Plug-in Media with <embed>
          1. Plug-in-Specific Attributes
          2. <noembed>
        7. Adding Media Files with <object>
      6. 10. Tables
        1. Summary of Table Tags
          1. <caption>
          2. <col>
          3. <colgroup>
          4. <table>
          5. <tbody>
          6. <td>
          7. <tfoot>
          8. <th>
          9. <thead>
          10. <tr>
        2. Introduction to Tables
        3. Basic Table Structure
          1. Rows and Cells
            1. Table level controls
            2. Row level controls
            3. Cell level controls
          2. Spanning Rows and Columns
            1. Column span
            2. Row span
          3. Row and Column Groups
            1. Row groups
            2. Column groups
            3. Sample HTML
        4. Affecting Table Appearance
          1. Borders
          2. Positioning a Table on the Page
            1. Centering tables
          3. Aligning Text in Cells
          4. Sizing Tables
            1. Table dimensions
            2. Cell dimensions
          5. Table Cell Spacing
          6. Coloring Tables
        5. Table Troubleshooting
          1. Text in Tables
          2. Form Elements in Tables
          3. Unwanted White Space
            1. Returns and spaces within <td>s
            2. Missing end tags
            3. Cellspacing in Netscape Navigator
          4. Collapsing Cells in Netscape
            1. Nonrendering text
            2. The single-pixel trick
            3. Using <spacer>
          5. Restraining Row Heights
          6. Column Span Problems
            1. The solution
        6. Tips and Tricks
          1. <font> and Tables
          2. Waiting for Tables to Display
          3. Baseline Alignment Trick
          4. Rowspans Made Easy
        7. Standard Table Templates
          1. A Simple Announcement Box
          2. Centering an Object in the Browser Window
          3. Creating a Vertical Rule
          4. Creating a Box Rule
          5. Two-Column Page Layouts
            1. First, a word about browser margins
            2. Fixed-width columns
            3. Relative column widths
            4. Combination
        8. Multipart Images in Tables
          1. Slicing & Dicing Tools
            1. Macromedia Fireworks
            2. Adobe ImageReady
          2. Producing Images in Tables Manually
            1. Dividing an image with Photoshop 4.0
            2. Creating the table in HTML
      7. 11. Frames
        1. Summary of Frame Tags
          1. <frame>
          2. <frameset>
          3. <iframe>
          4. <noframes>
        2. Introduction to Frames
          1. Advantages
          2. Disadvantages
        3. Basic Frameset Structure
          1. <noframes> content
          2. Establishing Rows and Columns
            1. Specifying sizes
            2. Combining rows and columns
          3. Nesting Frames
        4. Frame Function and Appearance
          1. Frame Borders and Spacing
            1. Borders for Netscape
            2. Borders for Internet Explorer
            3. Turning borders off for both browsers
          2. Scrolling
          3. Disabling Resize
          4. Frame Margins
        5. Targeting Frames
          1. The <base> tag
          2. Reserved target names
        6. Inline (Floating) Frames
        7. Frame Design Tips and Tricks
          1. All-Purpose Pages
          2. Helping Search Engines
          3. Loading Two Frames from One Link
            1. Loading a framed document
            2. Loading two frames with JavaScript
          4. Faking an <iframe>
          5. Frame-Proof Your Site
          6. Preloading Images with Hidden Frames
          7. Getting Rid of Page Margins
      8. 12. Forms
        1. Summary of Form Tags
          1. <button>
          2. <fieldset>
          3. <form>
          4. <input type=button>
          5. <input type=checkbox>
          6. <input type=file>
          7. <input type=hidden>
          8. <input type=image>
          9. <input type=password>
          10. <input type=radio>
          11. <input type=reset>
          12. <input type=submit>
          13. <input type=text>
          14. <isindex>
          15. <label>
          16. <legend>
          17. <optgroup>
          18. <option>
          19. <select>
          20. <textarea>
        2. Introduction to Forms
        3. The Basic Form (<form>)
          1. The action attribute
          2. The method attribute
          3. Encoding
        4. Form Elements
          1. Input Controls: <input>
            1. Text entry
            2. Password text entry
            3. Hidden entry
            4. Checkbox
            5. Radio button
            6. Submit and reset buttons
            7. Custom button
            8. Image button
            9. File selection
          2. Text Area: <textarea>
          3. Creating Menus with the <select> tag
            1. Pull-down menus
            2. Scrolling menus
        5. New Form Attributes (HTML 4.0)
        6. Affecting the Appearance of Forms
          1. Aligning Form Elements
            1. The <pre> tag
            2. Using tables for form alignment
          2. Working with Menus
        7. Unconventional Use of Form Elements
        8. Demystifying CGI
          1. Ask Your Server Administrator
          2. Using Available Scripts
      9. 13. Server Side Includes
        1. How SSI Is Used
          1. Advantages
          2. Disadvantages
          3. Getting the Most Out of SSI
        2. SSI and the Server
        3. Adding SSI Commands to a Document
          1. Example: Virtual Includes
        4. Using Environment Variables
          1. Example: Printing the Date and Time
        5. XSSI
          1. Flow Control Elements
          2. Setting Variables
        6. List of Elements
          1. config
          2. echo
          3. exec
          4. fsize
          5. flastmod
          6. include
          7. printenv
          8. set
        7. Include Variables
          1. Other Available Variables
        8. Time Formats for SSI Output
    4. III. Graphics
      1. 14. GIF Format
        1. GIF87a versus GIF89a
        2. Eight-Bit Indexed Color
        3. GIF Compression
        4. When to Use GIFs
        5. Tools Overview
        6. Interlacing
          1. Advantages
          2. Disadvantages
        7. Transparency
          1. Preventing “Halos”
            1. Use aliased edges
            2. Anti-alias to a colored background layer
            3. Using Adobe ImageReady 1.0
          2. Preventing Unwanted Transparent Areas
            1. Creating a distinct color for transparency
            2. Changing the distinct color without losing transparency
          3. Editing Transparency with the Alpha Channel
            1. Adding transparent areas
            2. Making transparent areas visible again
            3. Copying transparency information
        8. Minimizing GIF File Sizes
          1. Design Strategies
            1. Limit dimensions
            2. Design with flat color
          2. Reduce Bit-Depth/Number of Colors
          3. Limit Dithering
          4. Tools for Optimizing GIFs
            1. Adobe Photoshop (4.0 and 5.0)
            2. Macromedia Fireworks 1.0
            3. Adobe ImageReady 1.0
            4. HVS ColorGIF 2.0 (Digital Frontiers Software)
      2. 15. JPEG Format
        1. 24-bit Color
        2. JPEG Compression
          1. JPEG Decompression
          2. Variable Compression Levels
          3. Image Loss
        3. When to Use JPEGs
        4. Progressive JPEGs
          1. Advantages
          2. Disadvantages
        5. JPEGs in AOL Browsers
        6. Creating JPEGs
        7. Minimizing JPEG File Size
          1. Aggressive Compression Ratios
          2. “Optimized” JPEGs
          3. Precompression Image Preparation
            1. Using Adobe Photoshop (4.0 and 5.0)
            2. Using Macromedia Fireworks 1.0
            3. Using HVS JPEG plug-in
      3. 16. PNG Format
        1. Platform/Browser Support
        2. 8-Bit Palette, Grayscale, and Truecolor
          1. 8-Bit Palette Images
          2. Grayscale
          3. Truecolor
        3. PNG Compression
          1. Filters
        4. When to Use PNGs
          1. Not a JPEG Substitute
          2. A Good GIF Substitute
        5. Special Features
          1. Interlacing (Progressive Display)
          2. Gamma Correction
          3. Transparency
            1. Alpha channel
            2. 8-bit transparency
          4. Embedded Text
        6. Creating PNG Files
          1. Adobe Photoshop (4.0 and higher)
            1. Saving as a PNG
            2. Adding transparency
          2. Macromedia Fireworks 1.0
          3. Adobe ImageReady 1.0
        7. Optimizing PNG File Size
        8. Online PNG Resources
      4. 17. Designing Graphics with the Web Palette
        1. The Web Palette
        2. Other Palettes
        3. Image Types
          1. Photographic Images
          2. Flat Graphics
          3. Combination Images
        4. Designing with Web-Safe Colors
          1. Tools with Built-in Web Palettes
          2. Color Look-Up Tables (CLUT Files)
            1. Creating a CLUT file in Photoshop 4.0
            2. CLUT files for other graphics programs
        5. Converting to the Web Palette
          1. Selecting a Palette
          2. Reducing the Number of Colors
          3. Shifting to the Nearest Web-Safe Color
        6. Survey of Web Graphics Tools
          1. Adobe Photoshop (4.0 and 5.0)
            1. Reducing color depth
            2. Caution: Photoshop 4.0 shifts colors in adaptive palettes
              1. Preventing color shift
              2. Fixing Color Shift
          2. Adobe ImageReady 1.0
            1. Converting to Indexed Color
            2. The Optimized Colors Palette
            3. The Web Shift slider
          3. Macromedia Fireworks 1.0
          4. Web Scrubber Plug-in Filter (Furbo Filters)
        7. Color Blenders
          1. The Pros and Cons of Color Blenders
            1. Color blender advantages
            2. Disadvantages
          2. Using ColorSafe
            1. Color Picker
            2. Pattern Fill
          3. Creating Background Tiles with Hybrid Colors
        8. Where to Learn More
    5. IV. Multimedia and Interactivity
      1. 18. Animated GIFs
        1. How They Work
        2. Using Animated GIFs
        3. Browser Support
        4. Tools
          1. GIF Animation Utilities
          2. Applications that Include GIF Animation Tools
        5. Creating Animated GIFs
          1. Frame Delay
          2. Transparency
          3. Disposal Methods
          4. Color Palette
          5. Other Options
          6. Starting Points
        6. Optimizing Animated GIFs
          1. Image Compression
          2. Optimizing Methods
          3. GIF Wizard
      2. 19. Audio on the Web
        1. Copyright Issues
          1. Royalty-Free Audio Resources
          2. Record It Yourself
        2. Audio Tools Overview
        3. Basic Digital Audio Concepts
        4. Nonstreaming versus Streaming
          1. Nonstreaming Audio
            1. How it works
            2. Advantages
            3. Disadvantages
          2. Streaming Audio
            1. Streaming Audio Components
            2. Advantages
            3. Disadvantages
          3. Which Should You Choose?
        5. Nonstreaming (Static) Audio
          1. File Formats
          2. Optimizing Audio Files for Download
          3. Adding Nonstreaming Audio to an HTML Document
            1. A simple link
            2. <embed> for use with plug-ins
            3. Background sound
        6. Streaming Audio
          1. Available Technologies
            1. RealAudio (RealNetworks)
            2. Liquid Music System (LiquidAudio)
            3. Streamworks (Xing Technologies)
            4. Shockwave Audio (Macromedia)
            5. QuickTime Audio (Apple)
          2. Adding Streaming Audio to an HTML Document
            1. Linking to streaming audio
            2. Linking to Shockwave and QuickTime audio
            3. <embed> attributes for QuickTime plug-in
            4. <embed> attributes for the RealAudio plug-in
          3. Streaming Audio Summary
        7. Bibliography
      3. 20. Video on the Web
        1. Tools Overview
        2. Basic Digital Video Concepts
        3. Compression
          1. Lossless versus Lossy Compression
          2. Spatial versus Temporal Compression
          3. Video Codecs
        4. Video File Formats
          1. QuickTime Movie (.mov)
            1. Multiplatform QuickTime movies
            2. Streaming QuickTime movies
            3. Reference movies
            4. For more information
          2. AVI (.avi)
          3. MPEG (.mpg)
        5. Streaming Video Technologies
          1. RealVideo (RealNetworks)
          2. NetShow (Microsoft)
          3. Streamworks (Xing Technology)
          4. Streaming Video Summary
        6. Adding Video to an HTML Document
          1. With a Simple Link
          2. The <embed> Tag
          3. The dynsrc Attribute
        7. Bibliography
      4. 21. Interactivity
        1. Flash
          1. Advantages
          2. Disadvantages
          3. Creating Flash Content for the Web
          4. Configuring the Server
          5. Adding Flash to an HTML Document
            1. The <embed> tag
            2. The <object> tag
            3. The <noembed> tag
            4. Putting it together for all browsers
          6. Additional Flash Products
        2. Shockwave for Director
          1. Advantages
          2. Disadvantages
          3. Creating Shockwave Movies
          4. Configuring the Server
          5. Adding Shockwave Files to an HTML Document
            1. The <embed> tag
            2. The <object> tag
            3. The <noembed> tag
            4. Putting it together for all browsers
        3. Java Applets
          1. Advantages and Disadvantages
          2. What Applets Can Do
          3. Where to Get Applets
          4. Adding an Applet to a Page
          5. Troubleshooting
        4. Interactive Buttons with JavaScript
          1. Simple Rollovers
          2. Multiple Rollovers
      5. 22. Introduction to JavaScript
        1. JavaScript Basics
        2. Sample Scripts
          1. Status Line Messages
          2. Opening a New Window
          3. Managing Frames
        3. Handling Multiple Browsers
          1. Hiding JavaScript from Old Browsers
          2. Checking for Browsers
        4. Browser Compatibility
    6. V. Emerging Technologies
      1. 23. Cascading Style Sheets
        1. Introduction
          1. Advantages
          2. Disadvantages
          3. Strategies for Using Style Sheets Today
          4. The Future of Style Sheets
        2. How Style Sheets Work
          1. Rule Syntax
          2. Adding Styles to an HTML Document
            1. Inline styles
            2. Embedded style sheet
            3. External style sheet
              1. Linking.
              2. Importing
          3. Inheritance
          4. Conflicting Style Sheets: The Cascade
        3. Selectors
          1. Type Selector
            1. <div> and <span>
            2. Deleted and inserted text
          2. Contextual Selectors
          3. CLASS and ID Attribute Selectors
            1. CLASS selector
            2. ID selector
          4. Pseudo-Selectors
            1. Pseudo-elements
            2. Pseudo-classes
        4. Specifying Values
          1. Length Units
          2. Specifying Color
            1. By name
            2. By RGB values
        5. Properties
          1. Type-Related Properties
            1. font-family
            2. font-style
            3. font-variant
            4. font-weight
            5. font-size
            6. font
            7. color
            8. line-height
            9. word-spacing
            10. letter-spacing
            11. text-decoration
            12. vertical-align
            13. text-transform
            14. text-align
            15. text-indent
          2. Box Properties
            1. margin-top, margin-right, margin-bottom, margin-left
            2. margin
            3. padding-top, padding-right, padding-bottom, padding-left
            4. padding
            5. border-top-width, border-right-width, border-bottom-width, border-left-width
            6. border-width
            7. border-color
            8. border-style
            9. border-top, border-right, border-bottom, border-left
            10. border
            11. width
            12. height
            13. float
            14. clear
          3. Background Properties
            1. background-color
            2. background-image
            3. background-repeat
            4. background-attachment
            5. background-position
            6. background
          4. Classification Properties
            1. display
            2. white-space
            3. list-style-type
            4. list-style-image
            5. list-style-position
            6. list-style
        6. Positioning with Style Sheets
          1. The position Property
            1. Relative positioning
            2. Absolute positioning
            3. Static positioning
          2. Z-Order
          3. Visibility
          4. Overflow
        7. What’s New in CSS2
          1. New Selectors
          2. New Properties
          3. Font Descriptors
          4. New Pseudo-Selectors
          5. New Functions
          6. New Values for Existing Properties
        8. Style Sheet Tips and Tricks
          1. Style Sheet MIME Types
          2. Creating a Drop Cap
          3. Specifying Text Size in Pixels
          4. Setting BODY Color
          5. Setting BODY Font
          6. Making Padding Behave in Netscape
        9. Browser Support Charts
      2. 24. Introduction to DHTML
        1. Advantages to Using DHTML
        2. Disadvantages
        3. Learning DHTML
        4. Browser Differences
        5. The Document Object Model
          1. Referencing Objects in Netscape and IE
          2. Object Properties
            1. Location
            2. Visibility
            3. Stacking oder (z-index)
          3. Writing for Both Browsers
        6. DHTML Examples
          1. Browser Detection
          2. Style Changes
          3. Motion
            1. Changing this example to suit your needs
        7. DHTML Tools
          1. Advantages of WYSIWYG DHTML Tools
          2. Disadvantages
        8. Where to Learn More
      3. 25. Introduction to XML
        1. Background
        2. Document Type Definition (DTD)
        3. XML Syntax Basics
          1. Turning Existing HTML Documents into XML
        4. Examples of XML Technology
          1. Multimedia Presentations with SMIL
            1. How SMIL works
            2. SMIL resources
          2. Vector Graphics on the Web with XML
            1. Vector standard contenders
            2. Where to learn more
          3. Other XML Applications
        5. Where to Learn More
      4. 26. Embedded Font Technology
        1. Using Embedded Fonts
        2. TrueDoc Technology (“Dynamic Fonts”)
        3. OpenType (for Internet Explorer)
      5. 27. Internationalization
        1. Character Sets
          1. 8-Bit Encoded Character Sets
          2. 16-Bit Encoded Character Sets
          3. Specifying Character Encoding
        2. HTML 4.0 Language Tags
          1. The “LANG” Attribute
          2. Directionality
          3. Cursive Joining Behavior
        3. For More Information
    7. VI. Appendixes
      1. A. HTML Tags and Elements
        1. Attributes Key
        2. <a>
          1. <a>
        3. <abbr>
          1. <abbr>
        4. <acronym>
          1. <acronym>
        5. <address>
          1. <address>
        6. <applet> —D
          1. <applet> —D
        7. <area>
          1. <area>
        8. <b>
          1. <b>
        9. <base>
          1. <base>
        10. <basefont> —D
          1. <basefont> —D
        11. <bdo>
          1. <bdo>
        12. <bgsound> —IE
          1. <bgsound> —IE
        13. <big>
          1. <big>
        14. <blink> —NN
          1. <blink> —NN
        15. <blockquote>
          1. <blockquote>
        16. <body>
          1. <body>
        17. <br>
          1. <br>
        18. <button>
          1. <button>
        19. <caption>
          1. <caption>
        20. <center> —D
          1. <center> —D
        21. <cite>
          1. <cite>
        22. <code>
          1. <code>
        23. <col>
          1. <col>
        24. <colgroup>
          1. <colgroup>
        25. <comment> —IE
          1. <comment> —IE
        26. <dd>
          1. <dd>
        27. <del>
          1. <del>
        28. <dfn>
          1. <dfn>
        29. <dir> —D
          1. <dir> —D
        30. <div>
          1. <div>
        31. <dl>
          1. <dl>
        32. <dt>
          1. <dt>
        33. <em>
          1. <em>
        34. <embed>
          1. <embed>
        35. <fieldset>
          1. <fieldset>
        36. <font> —D
          1. <font> —D
        37. <form>
          1. <form>
        38. <frame>
          1. <frame>
        39. <frameset>
          1. <frameset>
        40. <h1...h6>
          1. <h1...h6>
        41. <head>
          1. <head>
        42. <hr>
          1. <hr>
        43. <html>
          1. <html>
        44. <i>
          1. <i>
        45. <iframe>
          1. <iframe>
        46. <img>
          1. <img>
        47. <input>
          1. <input>
        48. <ins>
          1. <ins>
        49. <isindex> —D
          1. <isindex> —D
        50. <kbd>
          1. <kbd>
        51. <label>
          1. <label>
        52. <layer> —NN
          1. <layer> —NN
        53. <legend>
          1. <legend>
        54. <li>
          1. <li>
        55. <link>
          1. <link>
        56. <map>
          1. <map>
        57. <marquee> —IE
          1. <marquee> —IE
        58. <menu> —D
          1. <menu> —D
        59. <meta>
          1. <meta>
        60. <multicol> —NN
          1. <multicol> —NN
        61. <nobr>
          1. <nobr>
        62. <noembed>
          1. <noembed>
        63. <noframes>
          1. <noframes>
        64. <noscript>
          1. <noscript>
        65. <object>
          1. <object>
        66. <ol>
          1. <ol>
        67. <optgroup>
          1. <optgroup>
        68. <option>
          1. <option>
        69. <p>
          1. <p>
        70. <param>
          1. <param>
        71. <pre>
          1. <pre>
        72. <q>
          1. <q>
        73. <s> —D
          1. <s> —D
        74. <samp>
          1. <samp>
        75. <script>
          1. <script>
        76. <select>
          1. <select>
        77. <small>
          1. <small>
        78. <spacer> —NN
          1. <spacer> —NN
        79. <span>
          1. <span>
        80. <strike> —D
          1. <strike> —D
        81. <strong>
          1. <strong>
        82. <style>
          1. <style>
        83. <sub>
          1. <sub>
        84. <sup>
          1. <sup>
        85. <table>
          1. <table>
        86. <tbody>
          1. <tbody>
        87. <td>
          1. <td>
        88. <textarea>
          1. <textarea>
        89. <tfoot>
          1. <tfoot>
        90. <th>
          1. <th>
        91. <thead>
          1. <thead>
        92. <title>
          1. <title>
        93. <tr>
          1. <tr>
        94. <tt>
          1. <tt>
        95. <u> —D
          1. <u> —D
        96. <ul>
          1. <ul>
        97. <var>
          1. <var>
        98. <wbr>
          1. <wbr>
      2. B. List of Attributes
        1. abbr
        2. accept-charset
        3. accept
        4. accesskey
        5. action
        6. align
        7. align
        8. align
        9. align
        10. align
        11. align
        12. align
        13. alink
        14. alt
        15. alt
        16. alt
        17. archive
        18. archive
        19. axis
        20. background
        21. bgcolor
        22. bgcolor
        23. bgcolor
        24. bgcolor
        25. border
        26. border
        27. cellpadding
        28. cellspacing
        29. char
        30. charoff
        31. charset
        32. checked
        33. cite
        34. cite
        35. class
        36. classid
        37. clear
        38. code
        39. codebase
        40. codebase
        41. codetype
        42. color
        43. cols
        44. cols
        45. colspan
        46. compact
        47. content
        48. coords
        49. coords
        50. data
        51. datetime
        52. declare
        53. defer
        54. dir
        55. dir
        56. disabled
        57. enctype
        58. face
        59. for
        60. frame
        61. frameborder
        62. headers
        63. height
        64. height
        65. height
        66. height
        67. href
        68. href
        69. hreflang
        70. hspace
        71. http-equiv
        72. id
        73. ismap
        74. label
        75. label
        76. lang
        77. language
        78. link
        79. longdesc
        80. longdesc
        81. marginheight
        82. marginwidth
        83. maxlength
        84. media
        85. method
        86. multiple
        87. name
        88. name
        89. name
        90. name
        91. name
        92. name
        93. name
        94. nohref
        95. noresize
        96. noshade
        97. nowrap
        98. object
        99. onblur
        100. onchange
        101. onclick
        102. ondblclick
        103. onfocus
        104. onkeydown
        105. onkeypress
        106. onkeyup
        107. onload
        108. onload
        109. onmousedown
        110. onmousemove
        111. onmouseout
        112. onmouseover
        113. onmouseup
        114. onreset
        115. onselect
        116. onsubmit
        117. onunload
        118. onunload
        119. profile
        120. prompt
        121. readonly
        122. rel
        123. rev
        124. rows
        125. rows
        126. rowspan
        127. rules
        128. scheme
        129. scope
        130. scrolling
        131. selected
        132. shape
        133. shape
        134. size
        135. size
        136. size
        137. size
        138. size
        139. span
        140. span
        141. src
        142. src
        143. src
        144. src
        145. standby
        146. start
        147. style
        148. summary
        149. tabindex
        150. target
        151. text
        152. title
        153. title
        154. type
        155. type
        156. type
        157. type
        158. type
        159. type
        160. type
        161. type
        162. type
        163. type
        164. usemap
        165. valign
        166. value
        167. value
        168. value
        169. value
        170. valuetype
        171. version
        172. vlink
        173. vspace
        174. width
        175. width
        176. width
        177. width
        178. width
        179. width
        180. width
        181. width
        182. width
      3. C. Deprecated Tags
        1. Deprecated Elements
        2. Deprecated Attributes
      4. D. Proprietary Tags
        1. Microsoft Internet Explorer Proprietary Tags
        2. Netscape Navigator Proprietary Tags
      5. E. CSS Compatibility
    8. F. Glossary
    9. Index
    10. Colophon