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Web Accessibility: Web Standards and Regulatory Compliance

Book Description

The power of the Web lies in the fact that anyone and everyone can access it, and this should also extend to users with disabilities. Accessibility is about making websites accessible to those with aural, visual, or physical disabilities, or rather, constructing websites that don't exclude these people from accessing the content or services provided.

This isn't difficult to accomplish and doesn't require anything more than your normal tool set—HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Flash, or whatever else. All you need to do is use these tools in the right way, and bear in mind the guidelines that exist to help you keep your websites accessible and the laws that enforce web accessibility around the world.

This book gives you all you need to know about web accessibility, whether you are a web designer or developer who wants your sites to be accessible, or a business manager who wants to learn the impact of web accessibility laws on your websites.

After an overview of the accessibility law and guidelines, and a discussion about accessibility and its implementation in the enterprise, the book goes on to show how to implement accessible websites using a combination of concise references and easy-to-follow examples, covering:

  • Understanding assistive technologies

  • Creating accessible content using XHTML, JavaScript, CSS, Flash, and PDFs

  • Testing against WCAG (including 2.0) and Section 508

  • Retrofitting inaccessible sites where necessary

The book concludes with an in-depth analysis of accessibility law around the world. If you're concerned about the legal and moral implications of web accessibility, then this book is perfect for you. It is written by some of the world's experts on accessibility, leaving you in good hands.

Table of Contents

  1. Title Page
  2. Dedication
  3. CONTENTS AT A GLANCE
  4. Contents
  5. Foreword
    1. The Challenge of Accessibility
  6. About the Authors
  7. About the Technical Reviewers
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Introduction
    1. Why Should You Care?
    2. What Accessibility Isn't
    3. Why Another Accessibility Book?
    4. Accessibility: The Three-Legged Stool
    5. Current Hot Potatoes
    6. What This Book Will Do
    7. Conventions Used in This Book
    8. So Let's Start!
  10. PART 1: THE IMPACT OF WEB ACCESSIBILITY
    1. Chapter 1: UNDERSTANDING WEB ACCESSIBILITY
      1. What Is Web Accessibility?
      2. Web Accessibility Is Essential for Equal Opportunity
      3. Benefits for People Without Disabilities
      4. Interdependent Components of Web Accessibility
      5. Approaches to Web Accessibility
      6. Harmful Myths About Web Accessibility
      7. Additional Benefits from a Business Perspective
      8. Call to Action
      9. Summary
    2. Chapter 2: OVERVIEW OF LAW AND GUIDELINES
      1. Evolution of Public Policy
      2. What Is the Problem?
      3. Complaints Filed Due to Inaccessible Web Design
      4. Development of Accessible Web Design Guidelines and Laws
      5. Summary
    3. Chapter 3: IMPLEMENTING ACCESSIBILITY IN THE ENTERPRISE
      1. Why Set Up an Accessibility Organization?
      2. Makeup of the Accessibility Organization
      3. Accessibility Organization Authority
      4. Accessibility Organization Scope, Goals, and Functions
      5. Implementation Approach
      6. Summary
  11. PART 2: IMPLEMENTING ACCESSIBLE WEBSITES
    1. Chapter 4: OVERVIEW OF ACCESSIBLE TECHNOLOGIES
      1. HTML and XHTML
      2. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
      3. JavaScript
      4. Flash
      5. Portable Document Format (PDF)
      6. Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL)
      7. QuickTime, Windows Media, and RealPlayer
      8. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)
      9. Java
      10. XML and XSL
      11. Summary
    2. Chapter 5: ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY: SCREEN READERS AND BROWSERS
      1. Screen Readers
      2. Talking and Text-Only Browsers
      3. Screen Magnification
      4. Browser Checks of Website Accessibility
      5. Summary
    3. Chapter 6: ACCESSIBLE CONTENT
      1. Guidelines for Accessible Web Development
      2. Using Text Equivalents for Images
      3. Using Text Equivalents for Audio
      4. Using Color
      5. Creating Accessible Tables
      6. Flicker Issues
      7. Summary
    4. Chapter 7: ACCESSIBLE NAVIGATION
      1. Navigation Considerations
      2. Reading Order
      3. Heading Navigation
      4. Skip Navigation Links
      5. Accessible Frames
      6. Accessible Image Maps
      7. Layout and Navigation
      8. Accessible Links
      9. Summary
    5. Chapter 8: ACCESSIBLE DATA INPUT
      1. Guidelines for Data-Input Forms
      2. Accessible Forms
      3. Mandatory Fields, Errors, and Help for Forms
      4. PDF Forms
      5. Accessibility of Forms for People Who Are Deaf
      6. Timed Responses
      7. Summary
    6. Chapter 9: CSS FOR ACCESSIBLE WEB PAGES
      1. How Style Sheets Benefit Accessibility
      2. CSS Basics
      3. Color and Backgrounds
      4. Text and Fonts
      5. Image Replacement Techniques
      6. Layout and Positioning
      7. Alternative Style Sheets
      8. Nonscreen Media
      9. Testing and Validation
      10. Summary
    7. Chapter 10: ACCESSIBLE JAVASCRIPT
      1. The JavaScript Saga
      2. Why JavaScript Has a Bad Reputation
      3. JavaScript Considerations
      4. Unobtrusive JavaScript
      5. Accessible Forms and JavaScript
      6. Summary
    8. Chapter 11: ACCESSIBLE FLASH
      1. User Requirements
      2. Technical Requirements
      3. Key Concepts for Accessible Flash Design
      4. Flash Accessibility Best Practices
      5. Summary
    9. Chapter 12: PDF ACCESSIBILITY
      1. Accessibility Features in Adobe Reader
      2. Tagged PDFs
      3. Accessibility Repair and Optimization
      4. Accessible PDF Forms
      5. Summary
    10. Chapter 13: ACCESSIBILITY TESTING
      1. What Testing Is Possible?
      2. Accessibility Checking Software
      3. The Test File Set and Results
      4. Summary
    11. Chapter 14: INTRODUCTION TO WCAG 2.0
      1. Standards vs. Guidelines
      2. WCAG 2.0 from 50,000 Feet
      3. What's in WCAG 2.0?
      4. Example of Using the WCAG 2.0 Guidelines
      5. WCAG 2.0 Advantages and Concerns
      6. Section 508 and WCAG
      7. Summary
    12. Chapter 15: RETROFITTING CASE STUDY: REDESIGN OF A UNIVERSITY WEBSITE
      1. The Original Site
      2. The Redesign
      3. Does the Design Solve the Original Problems?
      4. Problems Along the Way—Lessons Learned
      5. The Implementation of the New Design
      6. Summary
  12. PART 3: ACCESSIBILITY LAW AND POLICY
    1. Chapter 16: U.S. WEB ACCESSIBILITY LAW IN DEPTH
      1. Americans with Disabilities Act and the Internet
      2. Section 255 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996
      3. Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards (Section 508) Overview
      4. Legal Hot Topics for Web Developers and Policy Makers
      5. Summary
    2. Chapter 17: WORLDWIDE ACCESSIBILITY LAWS AND POLICIES
      1. Australia
      2. Austria
      3. Belgium
      4. Brazil
      5. Canada
      6. Denmark
      7. European Union
      8. Finland
      9. France
      10. Germany
      11. Hong Kong
      12. Ireland
      13. Italy
      14. Japan
      15. Korea
      16. Luxembourg
      17. The Netherlands
      18. New Zealand
      19. Norway
      20. Portugal
      21. Singapore
      22. Spain
      23. Sweden
      24. Thailand
      25. United Kingdom
      26. Summary
  13. Appendix A: GLOSSARY OF TERMS
  14. Appendix B: GUIDE TO THE SECTION 508 STANDARDS FOR ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
  15. Appendix C: OVERVIEW OF PAS 78 GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICE IN COMMISSIONING ACCESSIBLE WEBSITES
  16. Index