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Wearable Sensors

Book Description

Written by industry experts, this book aims to provide you with an understanding of how to design and work with wearable sensors. Together these insights provide the first single source of information on wearable sensors that would be a valuable addition to the library of any engineer interested in this field.

Wearable Sensors covers a wide variety of topics associated with the development and application of various wearable sensors. It also provides an overview and coherent summary of many aspects of current wearable sensor technology. Both industry professionals and academic researchers will benefit from this comprehensive reference which contains the most up-to-date information on the advancement of lightweight hardware, energy harvesting, signal processing, and wireless communications and networks. Practical problems with smart fabrics, biomonitoring and health informatics are all addressed, plus end user centric design, ethical and safety issues.



  • Provides the first comprehensive resource of all currently used wearable devices in an accessible and structured manner.
  • Helps engineers manufacture wearable devices with information on current technologies, with a focus on end user needs and recycling requirements.
  • Combines the expertise of professionals and academics in one practical and applied source.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. List of Contributors
  5. Introduction
  6. Chapter 1.1. Wearables: Fundamentals, Advancements, and a Roadmap for the Future
    1. 1 World of Wearables (WOW)
    2. 2 Attributes of Wearables
    3. 3 Textiles and Clothing: The Meta-Wearable
    4. 4 Challenges and Opportunities
    5. 5 The Future of Wearables: Defining the Research Roadmap
    6. References
  7. Chapter 1.2. Social Aspects of Wearability and Interaction
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Social Interpretation of Aesthetics
    3. 3 Adoption of Innovation and Aesthetic Change
    4. 4 On-Body Interaction: Social Acceptance of Gesture
    5. 5 Case Study: Google Glass
    6. 6 Conclusion
    7. References
  8. Chapter 1.3. Wearable Haptics
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 The Need for Wearable Haptic Devices
    3. 3 Categories of Wearable Haptic and Tactile Display
    4. 4 Display of Friction and Weight Illusions Based on Fingertip Manipulation
    5. 5 A Wearable Sensorimotor Enhancer
    6. 6 Conclusions
    7. References
  9. Chapter 2.1. Wearable Bio and Chemical Sensors
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 System Design
    3. 3 Challenges in Chemical Biochemical Sensing
    4. 4 Application Areas
    5. 5 Conclusions
    6. Acknowledgment
    7. References
  10. Chapter 2.2. Wearable Inertial Sensors and Their Applications
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Wearable Inertial Sensors
    3. 3 Obtained Parameters from Inertia Sensors
    4. 4 Applications for Wearable Motion Sensors
    5. 5 Practical Considerations for Wearable Inertial Sensor Applications in Clinical Practice and Future Research Directions
    6. References
  11. Chapter 2.3. Application of Optical Heart Rate Monitoring
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Photoplethysmography Basics
    3. 3 Applications
    4. 4 Conclusion and Outlook
    5. Nomenclature
    6. Acknowledgments
    7. References
  12. Chapter 2.4. Measurement of Energy Expenditure by Body-worn Heat-flow Sensors
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Energy Expenditure Background
    3. 3 Examples of Body-Worn Devices
    4. 4 Design Considerations
    5. 5 Performance
    6. 6 Validations
    7. 7 Conclusion
    8. References
  13. Chapter 3.1. Knitted Electronic Textiles
    1. 1 From Fibers to Textile Sensors
    2. 2 The Interlaced Network
    3. 3 Textile Sensors for Physiological State Monitoring
    4. 4 Biomechanical Sensing
    5. 5 Non-Invasive Sweat Monitoring by Textile Sensors
    6. 6 Smart Fabrics and Interactive Textile Platforms for Remote Monitoring
    7. 7 System for Remote Rehabilitation
    8. 8 Systems for Emotional State Assessment
    9. 9 Conclusions
    10. References
  14. Chapter 3.2. Woven Electronic Textiles
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Textiles
    3. 3 Applications
    4. 4 Summary
    5. References
  15. Chapter 3.3. Flexible Electronics from Foils to Textiles: Materials, Devices, and Assembly
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Thin-Film Transistors: Materials and Technologies
    3. 3 Review of Semiconductors Employed in Flexible Electronics
    4. 4 Thin-Film Transistors Based on a-IGZO
    5. 5 Further Improvements and Limitations
    6. 6 Plastic Electronics for Smart Textiles
    7. 7 Outlook and Conclusions
    8. References
  16. Chapter 4.1. Energy Harvesting at the Human Body
    1. 1 Introduction to Energy Harvesting Systems
    2. 2 Energy Harvesting from Temperature Gradient at the Human Body
    3. 3 Energy Harvesting from Foot Motion
    4. 4 Wireless Energy Transmission
    5. 5 Energy Harvesting from Light
    6. 6 Energy and Power Consumption Issues
    7. 7 Conclusions and Future Considerations
    8. Supplemental Material: Energy Harvesting at the Human Body
    9. References for the Supplemental Material
    10. References
  17. Chapter 4.2. Introduction to RF Energy Harvesting
    1. 1 RF Energy Harvesting Fundamentals and Practical Limitations
    2. 2 Impedance Mismatch, Losses, and Efficiency
    3. 3 Distribution of Harvested Power in a Realistic Environment
    4. 4 Charge Pump Rectifier Topologies
    5. 5 Effect of Load and Source Variations
    6. 6 Antenna-Rectifier Co-Design
    7. 7 Conclusion
    8. Acknowledgement
    9. References
  18. Chapter 4.3. Low-Power Integrated Circuit Design for Wearable Biopotential Sensing
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Biopotential Signals and Their Characteristics
    3. 3 Electrode-Body Interface and Electrode Noise
    4. 4 Low-Power Analog Circuit Design Techniques for Biopotential Sensors
    5. 5 Low-Power Design for ADCs
    6. 6 Low-Power Digital Circuit Design Techniques
    7. 7 Architectural Design for Low-Power Biopotential Acquisition
    8. 8 Practical Considerations
    9. 9 Conclusion
    10. References
  19. Chapter 5.1. Wearable Algorithms: An Overview of a Truly Multi-Disciplinary Problem
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Why Do Wearable Sensors Need Algorithms?
    3. 3 What are Wearable Algorithms?
    4. 4 Wearable Algorithms: State-of-the-Art and Emerging Techniques
    5. 5 Conclusions
    6. References
  20. Chapter 5.2. Mining Techniques for Body Sensor Network Data Repository
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Machine Learning Approaches to Data Mining
    3. 3 Mining BSN Data
    4. 4 Data Representation
    5. 5 Comparison Metric
    6. 6 Classifier
    7. 7 Data-Mining Model
    8. 8 Experimental Results
    9. 9 Conclusion and Recommendations
    10. Acknowledgment
    11. References
  21. Chapter 5.3. Modeling Physical Activity Behavior Change
    1. 1 Introduction – Physical Activity Monitoring Capabilities
    2. 2 Physical Activity Body Sensor Technology
    3. 3 Modeling Physical Activity
    4. 4 Behavior-Change Theories Relevant to Physical Activity Interventions
    5. 5 Conclusion
    6. References
  22. Chapter 6.1. Human Body Communication for a High Data Rate Sensor Network
    1. 1 Capacitive-Coupling Communication Through Human Body
    2. 2 Channel Properties of Human Body
    3. 3 Effects of Electrode’s Structure
    4. 4 Transmission Scheme of Human Body Communication
    5. 5 Analog Front-End for Human Body Communication
    6. 6 Performance of the Analog Front-End
    7. 7 Commercialization of Human Body Communication and its Challenges
    8. References
  23. Chapter 6.2. Channel Models for On-Body Communications
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 IEEE 802.15.6 TG6 Standard Models
    3. 3 Independent Studies
    4. 4 Conclusions
    5. Acknowledgements
    6. References
  24. Chapter 6.3. Trust Establishment in Wireless Body Area Networks
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 WBAN Device Authentication Techniques
    3. 3 Secret Key Establishment in WBAN
    4. 4 Summary
    5. References
  25. Chapter 6.4. Wireless Body Area Networks
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Evaluation Metrics
    3. 3 Technologies
    4. 4 Wearable Radios
    5. 5 Conclusions
    6. References
  26. Chapter 7.1. Fundamentals of Wearable Sensors for the Monitoring of Physical and Physiological Changes in Daily Life
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Wearable Sensors for Physiological Signal Measurement
    3. 3 Summary
  27. Chapter 7.2. Wearing Sensors Inside and Outside of the Human Body for the Early Detection of Diseases
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Cardiovascular Diseases
    3. 3 Neurological Diseases
    4. 4 Gastrointestinal Diseases
    5. 5 Conclusion
    6. Acknowledgment
    7. References
  28. Chapter 7.3. Wearable and Non-Invasive Assistive Technologies
    1. 1 Assistive Devices for Individuals with Severe Paralysis
    2. 2 Why Use the Tongue for Wearable Technology?
    3. 3 Wireless Tracking of Tongue Motion
    4. 4 Wearable Tongue Drive System
    5. 5 Sensor Signal-Processing Algorithm
    6. 6 Dual-Mode Tongue Drive System
    7. 7 Clinical Assessment
    8. 8 Future Directions
    9. References
  29. Chapter 7.4. Detection and Characterization of Food Intake by Wearable Sensors
    1. 1 Introduction
    2. 2 Wearable Sensors
    3. 3 Signal Processing and Pattern-Recognition Methods for Automatic Detection of Food Intake
    4. 4 Methods for Characterization of Food Intake
    5. 5 Applications
    6. 6 Summary and Conclusions
    7. References
  30. Index