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Wastewater Treatment Concepts and Practices

Book Description

The fundamental objective of wastewater treatment is to reduce the concentration of contaminants in the wastewater to such a degree that safe discharge to a receiving water, either surface water or groundwater, can be accomplished. Achieving that goal requires the application of several fundamental principles of engineering. Among those are chemistry, biology, hydraulics, fluid mechanics and mathematics of varying types. This book provides a synopsis of the basic fundamentals of those disciplines, as well as an outline of the use of those principles to solve specific wastewater engineering problems. This is the second in a series of volumes designed to assist with mastering the principles of environmental engineering. Inside this volume, the author addresses the process of wastewater treatment; not the mechanics or the machinery and reactors used to do the work. No amount of machinery and reactor vessels will ever treat wastewater effectively unless the process of using the equipment is properly developed first and properly utilized afterwards. A separate volume will address new and emerging technologies, updated regularly to cover those changes to the practice of wastewater treatment.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Abstract
  6. Contents
  7. List of Figures
  8. List of Tables
  9. Foreword
  10. Acknowledgments
  11. Preface
  12. Chapter 1: Chemistry Considerations
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Elements, Compounds, and Radicals
    3. 1.3 Reactive Characteristics of Atoms
    4. 1.4 Molecules
    5. 1.5 Moles and Normality
    6. 1.6 Properties of Radicals
    7. 1.7 Ions
    8. 1.8 Inorganic Chemicals
    9. 1.9 Units of Measure
    10. 1.10 Milliequivalents
    11. 1.11 Reaction Rates or "Reaction Kinetics"
    12. 1.12 Reactions Common to Wastewater Treatment
    13. 1.13 Coagulation and Flocculation
    14. 1.14 Hardness of Water
    15. 1.15 Chemical Oxygen Demand
    16. 1.16 Total Organic Carbon
    17. 1.17 Fats, Oil, and Grease
    18. 1.18 Material Balance Calculations
    19. 1.19 Emerging Chemicals of Concern
  13. Chapter 2: Biology Considerations
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Bacteria
    3. 2.3 Viruses
    4. 2.4 Algae
    5. 2.5 Fungi
    6. 2.6 Protozoans
    7. 2.7 Microscopic Multicellular Organisms
    8. 2.8 Pathogens
    9. 2.9 Indicator Organisms
    10. 2.10 Biological Oxygen Demand
    11. 2.11 BOD Formulas of Concern
    12. 2.12 Biological Decay Rate-k
    13. 2.13 Nitrogenous BOD
    14. 2.14 Temperature Effects on k-rate
    15. 2.15 Biological Growth Curve Kinetics
    16. 2.16 Dissolved Oxygen Concepts, Measurement, and Relevance
    17. 2.17 Biological Nitrification and Denitrification
  14. Chapter 3: Wastewater Treatment Processes
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Basic Design Parameters
    3. 3.3 Preliminary Treatment Units
    4. 3.4 Primary Treatment Units
    5. 3.5 Secondary Treatment
    6. 3.6 Sludge Management
    7. 3.7 Tertiary Treatment Units
    8. 3.8 Details of Disinfection of Wastewater
  15. Chapter 4: Sedimentation Fundamentals
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Discrete Particle Sedimentation
    3. 4.3 Flocculant Particle Sedimentation
    4. 4.4 Weirs
    5. 4.5 Clarifier Design
    6. 4.6 Flocculator Clarifiers
    7. 4.7 Design of Discrete Particle Clarifiers
    8. 4.8 Design of Flocculant Particle Clarifiers
    9. 4.9 Hindered Settling
    10. 4.10 Design of Upflow Clarifiers
  16. Chapter 5: Subsurface Wastewater Disposal
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Conventional Subsurface Disposal Systems
    3. 5.3 Alternative Disposal Field Designs
  17. Chapter 6: Water Reuse
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Specific Reuse Options
  18. About the Author
  19. Index
  20. Ad page
  21. Back cover