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VoIP Voice and Fax Signal Processing

Book Description

A complete and systematic treatment of signal processing for VoIP voice and fax

This book presents a consolidated view and basic approach to signal processing for VoIP voice and fax solutions. It provides readers with complete coverage of the topic, from how things work in voice and fax modules, to signal processing aspects, implementation, and testing. Beginning with an overview of VoIP infrastructure, interfaces, and signals, the book systematically covers:

  • Voice compression

  • Packet loss concealment techniques

  • DTMF detection, generation, and rejection

  • Wideband voice modules operation

  • VoIP Voice-Network bit rate calculations

  • VoIP voice testing

  • Fax over IP and modem over IP

  • Country deviations of PSTN mapped to VoIP

  • VoIP on different processors and architectures

  • Generic VAD-CNG for waveform codecs

  • Echo cancellation

  • Caller ID features in VoIP

  • Packetization—RTP, RTCP, and jitter buffer

  • Clock sources for VoIP applications

  • Fax operation on PSTN, modulations, and fax messages

  • Fax over IP payload formats and bit rate calculations

  • Voice packets jitter with large data packets

  • VoIP voice quality

  • Over 100 questions and answers on voice and more than seventy questions and answers on fax are provided at the back of the book to reinforce the topics covered throughout the text. Additionally, several clarification, interpretation, and discussion sections are included in selected chapters to aide in readers' comprehension.

    VoIP Voice and Fax Signal Processing is an indispensable resource for professional electrical engineers, voice and fax solution developers, product and deployment support teams, quality assurance and test engineers, and computer engineers. It also serves as a valuable textbook for graduate-level students in electrical engineering and computer engineering courses.

    Table of Contents

    1. Cover Page
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright
    4. Dedication
    5. CONTENTS
    6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    7. ABOUT THE AUTHOR
    8. PREFACE
    9. GLOSSARY
    10. CHAPTER 1: PSTN BASIC INFRASTRUCTURE, INTERFACES, AND SIGNALS
      1. 1.1 PSTN CO AND DLC
      2. 1.2 PSTN USER INTERFACES
      3. 1.3 DATA SERVICES ON TELEPHONE LINES
      4. 1.4 POWER LEVELS AND DIGITAL QUANTIZATION FOR G.711 μ/A-LAW
      5. 1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF POWER LEVELS ON LISTENING
      6. 1.6 TR-57, IEEE-743, AND TIA STANDARDS OVERVIEW
    11. CHAPTER 2: VoIP OVERVIEW AND INFRASTRUCTURE
      1. 2.1 PSTN AND VoIP
      2. 2.2 TYPICAL VoIP DEPLOYMENT EXAMPLE
      3. 2.3 NETWORK AND ACOUSTIC INTERFACES FOR VoIP
      4. 2.4 VoIP SYSTEMS WORKING PRINCIPLES
      5. 2.5 VoIP SIGNALING
    12. CHAPTER 3: VOICE COMPRESSION
      1. 3.1 COMPRESSION Codecs
      2. 3.2 G.711 COMPRESSION
      3. 3.3 SPEECH REDUNDANCIES AND COMPRESSION
      4. 3.4 G.726 OR ADPCM COMPRESSION
      5. 3.5 WIDEBAND VOICE
      6. 3.6 G.729 FAMILY OF LOW-BIT-RATE Codecs
      7. 3.7 MISCELLANEOUS NARROW AND WIDEBAND Codecs
      8. 3.8 Codecs AND OVERLOAD LEVELS
      9. 3.9 VOICE QUALITY OF Codecs
      10. 3.10 C-SOURCE CODE FOR Codecs
      11. 3.11 Codecs IN VoIP DEPLOYMENT
    13. CHAPTER 4: GENERIC VAD/CNG FOR WAVEFORM CODECS
      1. 4.1 VAD/CNG AND Codecs
      2. 4.2 GENERIC VAD/CNG FUNCTIONALITY
      3. 4.3 COMFORT NOISE PAYLOAD FORMAT
      4. 4.4 G.711 APPENDIX-II VAD/CNG ALGORITHM
      5. 4.5 POWER-BASED VAD/CNG
      6. 4.6 VAD/CNG IN LOW-BIT-RATE Codecs
      7. 4.7 MISCELLANEOUS ASPECTS OF VAD/CNG
      8. 4.8 SUMMARY ON VAD/CNG
    14. CHAPTER 5: PACKET LOSS CONCEALMENT TECHNIQUES
      1. 5.1 PACKET LOSS CONCEALMENT OVERVIEW
      2. 5.2 PACKET LOSS CONCEALMENT TECHNIQUES
      3. 5.3 TRANSMITTER- AND RECEIVER-BASED TECHNIQUES
      4. 5.4 DECODER-ONLY BASED PLC TECHNIQUES
      5. 5.5 PLC TECHNIQUES DESCRIPTION
      6. 5.6 PLC FOR LOW-BIT-RATE Codecs
      7. 5.7 PLC TESTING
      8. 5.8 PLC SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION
    15. CHAPTER 6: ECHO CANCELLATION
      1. 6.1 TALKER AND LISTENER ECHO IN PSTN VOICE CALL
      2. 6.2 NAMING CONVENTIONS IN ECHO CANCELLER
      3. 6.3 LINE AND ACOUSTIC ECHO CANCELLER
      4. 6.4 TALKER ECHO LEVELS AND DELAY
      5. 6.5 ECHO CANCELLATION IN VoIP ADAPTERS
      6. 6.6 ECHO PATH
      7. 6.7 ADAPTATION FILTERING ALGORITHMS
      8. 6.8 ECHO CANCELLER CONTROL FUNCTIONS
      9. 6.9 ECHO CANCELLATION IN MULTIPLE VOIP TERMINALS
      10. 6.10 ECHO CANCELLER TESTING
    16. CHAPTER 7: DTMF DETECTION, GENERATION, AND REJECTION
      1. 7.1 SPECIFICATIONS OF DTMF TONES
      2. 7.2 DTMF TONES GENERATION
      3. 7.3 DTMF DETECTION
      4. 7.4 GOERTZEL FILTERING WITH LINEAR FILTERING
      5. 7.5 TONE DETECTION USING TEAGER AND KAISER ENERGY OPERATOR
      6. 7.6 DFT OR FFT PROCESSING
      7. 7.7 DTMF REJECTION
      8. 7.8 DTMF RFC2833 PROCESSING
      9. 7.9 DTMF TESTING
      10. 7.10 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSIONS
    17. CHAPTER 8: CALLER ID FEATURES IN VoIP
      1. 8.1 FSK CALLER ID ON PSTN
      2. 8.2 FSK CALLER ID DATA TRANSPORT PROTOCOL
      3. 8.3 DTMF-BASED CALLER ID
      4. 8.4 COUNTRY-SPECIFIC CALLER ID OVERVIEW
      5. 8.5 CALLER ID IN VoIP
      6. 8.6 CALL WAIT CALLER ID
      7. 8.7 CALLER ID ON FXO INTERFACES
      8. 8.8 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSIONS
    18. CHAPTER 9: WIDEBAND VOICE MODULES OPERATION
      1. 9.1 WIDEBAND VOICE EXAMPLES
      2. 9.2 WIDEBAND VoIP ADAPTER
      3. 9.3 WIDEBAND VOICE SUMMARY
    19. CHAPTER 10: PACKETIZATION—RTP, RTCP, AND JITTER BUFFER
      1. 10.1 REAL-TIME PROTOCOL (RTP)
      2. 10.2 RTP CONTROL PROTOCOL (RTCP)
      3. 10.3 VoIP PACKET IMPEDIMENTS
      4. 10.4 JITTER BUFFER
      5. 10.5 ADAPTIVE JITTER BUFFER
      6. 10.6 ADAPTING TO DELAY VARIATIONS
      7. 10.7 AJB ALGORITHMS OVERVIEW
      8. 10.8 ADAPTIVE JITTER BUFFER IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES
      9. 10.9 FIXED JITTER BUFFER IMPLEMENTATION GUIDELINES
    20. CHAPTER 11: VoIP VOICE—NETWORK BIT RATE CALCULATIONS
      1. 11.1 VOICE COMPRESSION AND BIT RATE OVERVIEW
      2. 11.2 VOICE PAYLOAD AND HEADERS
      3. 11.3 ETHERNET, DSL, AND CABLE INTERFACES FOR VoIP
      4. 11.4 VoIP VOICE PACKETS ON A DSL INTERFACE
      5. 11.5 VoIP VOICE PACKETS ON A CABLE INTERFACE
      6. 11.6 BIT RATE CALCULATION FOR DIFFERENT CODECS
      7. 11.7 BIT RATE WITH VAD/CNG
      8. 11.8 BIT RATE WITH RTCP, RTCP-XR, AND SIGNALING
      9. 11.9 SUMMARY ON VoIP BIT RATE
    21. CHAPTER 12: CLOCK SOURCES FOR VoIP APPLICATIONS
      1. 12.1 PSTN SYSTEMS AND CLOCKS
      2. 12.2 VoIP SYSTEM CLOCK OPTIONS
      3. 12.3 CLOCK TIMING DEVIATIONS RELATING TO VoIP PACKETS
      4. 12.4 MEASURING CLOCK PPM
      5. 12.5 CLOCK DRIFT INFLUENCE ON VOICE AND FAX CALLS
    22. CHAPTER 13: VoIP VOICE TESTING
      1. 13.1 BASIC TEST SETUP
      2. 13.2 FIRST-LEVEL VoIP MANUAL TESTS
      3. 13.3 ANALOG FRONT-END VOICE TRANSMISSION TESTS
      4. 13.4 TELEPHONE LINE MONITOR FOR TONES AND TIMING CHARACTERISTICS
      5. 13.5 MOS—PSQM, PAMS, AND PESQ MEASUREMENTS
      6. 13.6 BULK CALLS FOR STRESS TESTING
      7. 13.7 NETWORK IMPEDIMENTS CREATION
      8. 13.8 VoIP PACKETS ANALYSIS
      9. 13.9 COMPLIANCE TESTS
      10. 13.10 VoIP INTEROPERABILITY
      11. 13.11 DEPLOYMENT TESTS
      12. 13.12 VOICE QUALITY CERTIFICATIONS
      13. 13.13 VoIP SPEECH QUALITY TESTS BY THE ETSI
      14. 13.14 USER OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
    23. CHAPTER 14: FAX OPERATION ON PSTN, MODULATIONS, AND FAX MESSAGES
      1. 14.1 FAX MACHINE OVERVIEW
      2. 14.2 FAX IMAGE CODING SCHEMES
      3. 14.3 FAX MODULATION RATES
      4. 14.4 PSTN FAX CALL PHASES
      5. 14.5 FAX AND MODEM TONES BASICS
      6. 14.6 TONES DETECTION
      7. 14.7 FAX MODULATIONS AND DEMODULATIONS
      8. 14.8 V.21 FAX MODEM
      9. 14.9 V.27ter FAX MODEM
      10. 14.10 V.29 MODEM
      11. 14.11 V.17 MODEM
      12. 14.12 V.34 FAX MODEM
      13. 14.13 V.21 HDLC FRAMING AND DEFRAMING
      14. 14.14 HDLC MESSAGES IN ECM
      15. 14.15 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSIONS ON FAX
    24. CHAPTER 15: FAX OVER IP AND MODEM OVER IP
      1. 15.1 FAX OVER IP OVERVIEW
      2. 15.2 FAX OVER IP BENEFITS
      3. 15.3 FAX BASIC FUNCTIONALITY AND DETECTING FAX CALL
      4. 15.4 T.38 FAX RELAY
      5. 15.5 FAX PASS-THROUGH
      6. 15.6 FAX OVER IP INTEROPERABILITY CHALLENGES
      7. 15.7 MODEM BASIC FUNCTIONS ON PSTN
      8. 15.8 MIGRATING MODEM FUNCTIONS TO IP
      9. 15.9 GUIDELINES FOR FAX AND MODEM PASS-THROUGH IN VoIP
      10. 15.10 VoIP FAX TESTS
    25. CHAPTER 16: FAX OVER IP PAYLOAD FORMATS AND BIT RATE CALCULATIONS
      1. 16.1 OVERVIEW ON T.38 AND G.711 PASS-THROUGH BIT RATE
      2. 16.2 G.711 FAX PASS-THROUGH BIT RATE
      3. 16.3 T.38 BASIC PAYLOAD BYTES FOR V.27 TER, V.29, V.17, AND V.34
      4. 16.4 OVERVIEW ON REDUNDANT AND DUPLICATE FAX PACKETS
      5. 16.5 T.38 IFP PACKETS
      6. 16.6 IFP OVER TCP (TCP/IP/IFP)
      7. 16.7 IFP OVER UDP
      8. 16.8 T.38 UDPTL-BASED BIT RATE CALCULATION WITH REDUNDANCY
      9. 16.9 FAX UDPTL-BASED BIT RATE ON ETHERNET AND DSL INTERFACES
      10. 16.10 T.38 BIT RATE RECOMMENDATIONS
    26. CHAPTER 17: COUNTRY DEVIATIONS OF THE PSTN MAPPED TO VoIP
      1. 17.1 COUNTRY-SPECIFIC DEVIATIONS
      2. 17.2 COUNTRY-SPECIFIC DEVIATIONS ON VoIP INTERFACES
      3. 17.3 CALL PROGRESS TONES FOR MULTIPLE COUNTRIES
      4. 17.4 CALL PROGRESS TONE DETECTORS
    27. CHAPTER 18: VOICE PACKETS JITTER WITH LARGE DATA PACKETS
      1. 18.1 ATM CELLS AND TRANSMISSION
      2. 18.2 IPQoS AND QUEUING JITTER ON AN INTERFACE
    28. CHAPTER 19: VoIP ON DIFFERENT PROCESSORS AND ARCHITECTURES
      1. 19.1 VoIP ON PERSONAL COMPUTERS
      2. 19.2 VoIP ON PC ADD-ON CARDS
      3. 19.3 VoIP ON DEDICATED PROCESSORS
      4. 19.4 OPERATING SYSTEM ASPECTS ON DIFFERENT PLATFORMS
      5. 19.5 VOICE PROCESSING COMPLEXITY
    29. CHAPTER 20: VoIP VOICE QUALITY
      1. 20.1 VOICE QUALITY MEASUREMENTS
      2. 20.2 E-MODEL-BASED VOICE QUALITY ESTIMATION
      3. 20.3 VoIP VOICE QUALITY CONSIDERATIONS
      4. 20.4 VoIP VOICE QUALITY SUMMARY
      5. 20.5 VOICE QUALITY MONITORING AND RTCP-XR
      6. 20.6 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSIONS
    30. CHAPTER 21: VoIP VOICE FAQS
    31. CHAPTER 22: BASIC FAX AND FAX OVER IP FAQS
    32. BIBLIOGRAPHY
    33. INDEX