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VMware vSphere™ 4 Implementation

Book Description

Evolve to a virtual network infrastructure using VMware vSphere 4

Design and deploy a high-performance cloud-based enterprise IT platform with guidance from a VMware expert. Featuring tips, techniques, and best practices, VMware vSphere 4 Implementation explains how to dramatically cut hardware costs, maximize computing power, and centralize system administration. Configure hardware and storage devices, build virtual machines and networks, install guest operating systems, and import physical machines. Security, disaster recovery, performance tuning, and system updates are also covered in this comprehensive resource.

• Perform a clean VMware vSphere 4 install or migrate existing systems

• Build Distributed Virtual Networks using DvSwitches and VMotion

• Manage SAN, NAS, iSCSI, and fiber channel storage devices

• Construct VM and provision new copies of Windows/Linux from vCenter

• Automate server maintenance with the Distributed Resource Scheduler

• Set up multiple security zones, users, permissions, roles, and privileges

• Maximize uptime using VMware High Availability and Fault Tolerance

• Work with VMware Consolidated Backup, vDR, and Update Manager

Mike Laverick is a VMware Forum moderator and member of the London VMware User Group steering committee. He is the sole author of the virtualization website/blog, RTFM Education. Mike recently received the vExperts Award from VMware.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. VMware vSphere™ 4 Implementation
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Foreword
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. Introduction
  9. CHAPTER 1 Install and Configure ESX 4 Classic
    1. What Is ESX?
    2. Preparing for ESX Installation
      1. Confirming Physical Settings
      2. Checking Your Source Code ISO
      3. Using an ILO
    3. Installing ESX 4 Locally
      1. Starting the Installation
      2. Specifying Your Network Configuration
      3. Setting Up Your Storage and Datastore
      4. Creating the Partitions
      5. Completing the Installation
    4. Connect and Manage the ESX host
      1. Gaining Command-Line Access
      2. Installing the vSphere Client
      3. Creating Additional Local Users on an ESX Host
      4. Enabling SSH from Your ESX Host to Other Hosts
    5. Configuring NTP
    6. Monitoring Hardware
      1. Viewing Health Status
      2. Installing Hardware Management Agents
    7. Increasing Memory Allocation to the Service Console
    8. Configuring ESX4 Classic for SAN Booting
      1. SAN-Based Booting Restrictions and Requirements
      2. Preparing for Installing a SAN-Based Booting Configuration
      3. Configuring the Fibre Channel BIOS Options
      4. Configuring the Main System BIOS
      5. Installing ESX to a SAN LUN
    9. Summary
  10. CHAPTER 2 Install and Configure ESXi 4
    1. Advantages of ESXi 4
    2. Installing ESXi 4
    3. Creating USB Memory Sticks for ESXi
    4. Setting Up ESXi 4
      1. Setting the Root Password
      2. Configuring Management Network
      3. Setting Other ESXi 4 Options
      4. Viewing the System Logs
    5. Rebooting an ESXi 4 Host
    6. Enabling the Tech Support Command-Line/PuTTY Access
    7. Summary
  11. CHAPTER 3 Install vCenter
    1. What Is vCenter?
      1. What Is VMware vCenter Web Access?
      2. What Are vSphere Modules, Extensions, and Plug-ins?
    2. Should vCenter Run on a Virtual or Physical Machine?
    3. Join vCenter Servers in to “Linked Mode”
    4. Configure Your Database for vCenter
      1. Setting SQL Server Authentication
      2. Create the Database and Setting Permissions
      3. Configuring a DSN Connection
    5. Setting Up vCenter
      1. Installing vCenter with Microsoft SQL Server 2005
      2. Creating Datacenters and Folders
      3. Adding ESX and ESXi Hosts to vCenter
      4. Configuring vCenter Linked Mode
      5. Monitoring vCenter
      6. Viewing vSphere 4 License Usage
    6. Protect Your vCenter Server
    7. Technology Preview: vCenter Mobile Access
      1. Downloading and Configuring Mobile Access
      2. Using Mobile Access
    8. Summary
  12. CHAPTER 4 Standard Networking
    1. What Are Standard vSwitches?
    2. What Are Port Groups?
    3. Port Group Naming
    4. Creating Standard vSwitches
      1. Creating an Internal Standard vSwitch
      2. Creating a Teamed Standard vSwitch
      3. Creating a Standard vSwitch with VLAN Support
      4. Creating a VMkernel Standard vSwitch for VMotion
    5. Configuring Standard vSwitches and Port Groups
      1. Increasing the Number of Ports on a vSwitch
      2. Setting Speed and Duplex on Physical NICs
      3. Setting vSwitch and Port Group Policies
      4. Using a Master vSwitch
      5. Creating Standby vSwitches
    6. Managing Service Console Networking
      1. Creating a Backup Port Group for the Service Console
      2. Changing the Service Console Network Settings
    7. Troubleshooting Service Console Networking
      1. Correcting Your NIC Selection
      2. Correcting IP Settings
    8. Advanced Switch Settings
      1. Configuring the Cisco Discovery Protocol
      2. Configuring the Maximum Transmission Unit Size
    9. Enabling IPv6 Support
      1. Introduction to IPv6 Addressing
      2. Enabling IPv6 Support in Windows 2003 with DNS
      3. Enabling IPv6 Support in Windows 2008 with an IPv6 DHCP Server
      4. Enabling IPv6 Support in vCenter
      5. Enabling IPv6 Support on ESX
    10. Summary
  13. CHAPTER 5 Distributed Virtual Networking
    1. What Are DvSwitches?
    2. What Are Distributed Virtual Uplinks?
    3. Creating Distributed vSwitches
      1. Creating a DvSwitch for Virtual Machine Networking
      2. Creating a VMkernel DvSwitch for VMotion
      3. Creating a DvSwitch Port Group for the Service Console
    4. Adding and Removing Physical NICs
    5. Removing a DvSwitch from an ESX Host
    6. Advanced DvSwitch Settings
      1. Configuring and Viewing DvSwitch Settings
      2. Configuring DvSwitch Port Group Settings
    7. Migrating from Standard vSwitches to DvSwitches
      1. Migrating to a Virtual Machine Networking DvSwitch
      2. Migrating to a VMkernel DvSwitch
      3. Migrating to a Management DvSwitch
      4. Migrating from a DvSwitch to a Standard vSwitch
    8. Summary
  14. CHAPTER 6 Storage
    1. Configuring SAN-Based Storage
      1. Discovering Your HBA’s WWN
      2. Rescanning HBAs
    2. Understanding the vmhba Syntax
    3. Configuring iSCSI SAN-Based Storage
      1. Hardware and Software Initiators
      2. iSCSI Qualified Names
      3. Limitations on iSCSI Use
      4. Emulating an iSCSI System
      5. Configuring ESX for iSCSI
      6. Connecting ESX to an iSCSI Software Adapter
      7. Setting Up iSCSI with CHAP Authentication
    4. Managing VMFS Volumes
      1. Formatting Volumes with VMFS
      2. Increasing the Size of VMFS Volumes
      3. Viewing Free Space and Disk Alarms
    5. Configuring Multipathing with Fibre Channel and iSCSI SAN
      1. Managing Multiple Fibre Channel Paths
      2. Install, License, and Configure Third-Party Path Selection Policies
      3. Viewing Broken Paths
    6. Configuring NAS Storage
      1. Setting Up NFS on Red Hat Linux
      2. Setting Up NFS on Windows with SFU
      3. Adding an NFS Mount Point
      4. Removing an NFS Mount Point
    7. Storage Views and Maps
    8. Summary
  15. CHAPTER 7 Creating and Modifying Virtual Machines
    1. What Defines a Virtual Machine?
      1. Virtual Motherboard
      2. USB, Parallel, and Serial Devices
      3. Virtual CDs and Floppies
      4. Keyboard and Mouse Interface
    2. Setting Up Your First VM
      1. Creating a VM
      2. Installing the Guest Operating System
    3. Powering On and Off VMs
      1. Powering Off Your VM
      2. Setting a Boot Delay
      3. Automatically Starting and Stopping of VMs
    4. Setting up VMware Tools
      1. Installing VMware Tools for Windows
      2. Installing VMware Tools for Linux
      3. Configuring VMware Tools
      4. Checking If VMware Tools Is Up to Date
    5. Upgrading Virtual Hardware and VMware Tools
    6. Adding Virtual Hardware
      1. Giving a VM Direct Access to a SAN or iSCSI LUN
      2. Hot Adding Virtual Disks to Linux
      3. Hot Adding NICs
      4. Hot Adding Memory and CPUs
      5. Adding IDE Drives to Windows
      6. Enabling the VMCI Device
      7. Using VMDirectPath I/O
    7. Configuring VM Features
      1. Configuring a Static MAC Address
      2. Enabling N-Port Virtualization
      3. Enabling Paravirtualization
      4. Configuring the Memory Management Unit
    8. Managing Virtual Disks
      1. Resizing Virtual Disks
      2. Converting a Thin Virtual Disk to a Thick Virtual Disk
      3. Converting a Thick Virtual Disk into Thin Virtual Disk
    9. Using Snapshots
      1. Creating a Snapshot
      2. Reverting to a Snapshot
      3. Deleting a Snapshot
      4. Changing Disk Modes
    10. Removing, Adding, and Deleting VMs
      1. Adding a VM
      2. Removing a VM
      3. Deleting a VM
    11. P2V of a Physical Machine with vCenter Converter
      1. Installing vCenter Converter
      2. Using vCenter Converter with the Agent (Enterprise Mode)
      3. Using vCenter Converter with the Cold-Clone Boot CD (Enterprise Mode)
      4. Cleaning Up After P2V Conversion
      5. Using Guided Consolidation for P2V Conversion
    12. Setting Up a VMware ESX Testing Environment
      1. Option A: Two ESX Servers and a NAS, Please!
      2. Option B: Run on PCs
      3. Option C: Virtualize ESX
    13. Summary
  16. CHAPTER 8 Rapid VM Deployment
    1. Duplicating VMs
      1. Preparing for Templates
      2. Storing Templates
      3. Cloning to a Template
      4. Converting a VM to a Template
    2. Using VM Templates
      1. Adding Sysprep Support to vCenter
      2. Creating a New VM from a Template
    3. Using the Customization Specification Manager
    4. Using the VMware Open Virtual Machine Format (OVF)
      1. Importing a Virtual Appliance
      2. Exporting a VM in OVF Format
    5. Summary
  17. CHAPTER 9 Access Control
    1. The VMware Security Model
    2. Assigning and Using Roles
      1. Assigning a Predefined Role
      2. Creating Custom Roles
      3. Removing Custom Roles
      4. Permission Anomalies
    3. Managing User Access
      1. Sending Messages to Users and Disconnecting Users
      2. Using the Web Access Service
    4. An Access Control Example: Create VMs and Restrict Storage Access
      1. Assigning a Custom Read-Only Rights Role to vCenter
      2. Assigning the Virtual Machine Administrator Role to the Datacenter
      3. Reorganizing Datastores in Folders
      4. Denying Rights to the Folder Containing Local VMFS Volumes
    5. Summary
  18. CHAPTER 10 Resource Monitoring
    1. Introduction to VM Resource Monitoring
    2. VM Resource Allocation
      1. CPU Allocation
      2. Memory Allocation
    3. Identifying Resource Constraints
      1. CPU Monitoring
      2. Memory Monitoring
      3. Network Monitoring
      4. Disk Monitoring
      5. Accessing Performance Data
    4. Using vCenter Performance Charts
      1. Viewing CPU Utilization
      2. Setting Chart Options
    5. Configuring Alarms and Alerts
      1. Modifying Alarms
      2. Creating Custom Alarms
      3. Configuring Alarm Tolerance and Frequency
      4. Configuring Email Alerts
      5. Configuring SNMP Alerts
      6. Acknowledging Alarms
    6. Viewing Events and Tasks
    7. Configuring Scheduled Tasks
    8. Accessing and Exporting Log Files and Support Data
      1. Accessing and Exporting vCenter Logs
      2. Generating ESX Host Log Files
    9. Summary
  19. CHAPTER 11 Resource Management
    1. Setting Limits
    2. Setting Reservations
    3. The Share System
    4. Processor Affinities
    5. Resource Pools
      1. A Resource Pool Example
      2. CPU Ready Values and Multiple vCPUs
      3. Share Values on VMs Within a Resource Pool
    6. Admission Control: Insufficient Resources to Power On?
      1. Admission Control Examples
      2. Resolving Admission Control Problems
    7. Using vApps
      1. Creating a vApp
      2. Configuring Internal Dynamic IP Allocation
      3. Setting Descriptive (Advanced) Information
    8. Summary
  20. CHAPTER 12 VMotion, Storage VMotion, and Cold Migration
    1. VMotion (Change Host)
      1. VMotion Requirements on the ESX Host
      2. CPU Incompatibilities
      3. VMotion Requirements on the VM
      4. Resolving VMotion Errors and Warnings
      5. Enabling VMotion on Standard vSwitch
      6. Initiating VMotion
      7. VMotion Without Drag-and-Drop
    2. Storage VMotion (Change Datastore)
      1. Requirements for Storage VMotion
      2. Performing SVMotion from the GUI
      3. Performing SVMotion from the vSphere CLI
    3. Cold Migration (Change Host and/or Datastore)
    4. Summary
  21. CHAPTER 13 VMware Distributed Resource Scheduler
    1. DRS Overview
      1. DRS Levels of Automation
      2. Migration Thresholds
      3. DRS Rules and Regulations
      4. Resource Pools and DRS Clustering
    2. Preparing for DRS
    3. Configuring DRS
      1. Setting Up a DRS Cluster in Manual Mode
      2. Viewing and Applying Recommendations
      3. Choosing Initial Placement
      4. Configuring DRS Cluster Affinity/Anti-Affinity Rules
      5. Setting Custom Automation Levels
      6. Configuring Fully Automated DRS Using Maintenance Mode
      7. Resolving Maintenance Mode Problems
      8. Viewing DRS Fault Reports
      9. Creating Resource Pools on a DRS Cluster
    4. Enabling Enhanced VMotion Compatibility
    5. Relocating the VMkernel Swap File
    6. Summary
  22. CHAPTER 14 VMware Distributed Power Management
    1. DPM Overview
    2. Preparing for DRS
      1. Checking WoL Support
      2. Manually Testing Standby Mode
    3. Enabling DPM on a Cluster
    4. Configuring DPM with ILO/RAC/DRAC Cards
      1. Preparing for Using ACPI Features for DPM
      2. Configuring the ESX Hosts
    5. Summary
  23. CHAPTER 15 VMware High Availability
    1. HA Overview
    2. HA and Resource Management
    3. HA and the Split-Brain Phenomena
      1. ESX 4 and Split-Brain/Isolation
      2. ESXi 4 and Split-Brain/Isolation
    4. Enabling and Configuring VMware HA
      1. Enabling HA on ESX Host Clusters
      2. Setting VMware HA Options
      3. Configuring VM Options
      4. Configuring VM Monitoring
      5. Configuring VMware HA and VM Clustering
    5. Testing and Monitoring VMware HA
      1. Testing HA with ESX Classic
      2. VMware HA and VMotion
      3. Monitoring a HA Cluster
    6. Summary
  24. CHAPTER 16 VMware Fault Tolerance
    1. FT Advantages and Disadvantages
    2. Hardware and Software Requirements for FT
      1. Discovering CPU Types
      2. Using VMware SiteSurvey to Check FT Support
    3. Enabling VMware FT
      1. Confirming Certificate Management
      2. Confirming That HA and VMotion Function Correctly
      3. Enabling FT Logging on a New Port Group
      4. Confirming the Target VM’s Disk Type
      5. Checking VM Settings
      6. Enabling VMware FT on a VM
    4. Testing VMware FT
      1. Soft Testing VMware FT
      2. Hard Testing—Real-World FT What-if Scenarios
    5. Turning Off or Disabling FT
      1. Turning Off FT
      2. Disabling FT
    6. Summary
  25. CHAPTER 17 vSphere Advanced Configuration Tools
    1. Configuration Tool Overview
    2. Implementing Host Profiles
      1. Creating a Host Profile from an Existing ESX Server
      2. Editing a Host Profile
      3. Attaching and Applying a Host Profile
      4. Using a Host Policy to Reconfigure a VMware Cluster
      5. Updating and Exporting Host Profiles
    3. Using the vSphere CLI with ESX 4
      1. Authenticating to a Server
      2. Creating vSwitches
      3. Enabling the VMware iSCSI Software Initiator
      4. Setting Your NTP Configuration
      5. Configuring NAS
      6. Managing Files
      7. Creating a Snapshot of a VM and Exporting Its Files to Local Storage
      8. Backing Up Your ESXi Configuration
    4. Using the vSphere Management Assistant
      1. Downloading and Importing vMA
      2. Adding Credentials and ESX Hosts
      3. Connecting to an ESX Host and Running Commands
    5. Using the Interactive Tech Support Mode in ESXi 4
    6. Using the vSphere PowerCLI for Windows
      1. Installing Windows PowerShell and the vSphere PowerCLI
      2. Using VMware PowerShell Cmdlets
      3. Using PowerShell Scripts
    7. Scripted Installations of ESX 4 Classic
      1. Downloading and Installing the UDA
      2. Configuring the UDA
      3. Creating Templates
      4. Scripted Installation File Overview with Advanced %post Scripting
      5. Interactive PXE Installation
    8. Summary
  26. CHAPTER 18 Virtual Machine Backup
    1. How Do Hot Backups Work?
    2. Overview of Backup Strategies
      1. Backup Agents Inside the VM
      2. Free Virtualization Backup Utilities
      3. Third-Party Virtualization-Only Solutions
      4. VMware Technology
    3. Using the VMware Data Recovery Appliance
      1. vDR Requirements
      2. Installing and Configuring vDR
      3. Backing Up a VM
      4. Restoring VMs
      5. Managing Restore Points
    4. Using VMware Consolidated Backup
      1. Installing VMware Consolidated Backup
      2. Using VCB on the Command Line
      3. Virtualizing VCB
    5. Summary
  27. CHAPTER 19 VMware Patch Management
    1. VMware Updates
    2. Using the vSphere Host Update Utility with ESXi 4
      1. Patching ESXi 4 with the Host Update Utility
      2. Rolling Back ESXi 4 Host Updates
    3. Using VMware Update Manager
      1. Installing VMware Update Manager
      2. Creating Baselines and Baseline Groups
      3. Attaching Baselines and Scanning for Updates
      4. Staging and Remediation of ESX hosts
      5. Configuring VMware Update Service Settings
    4. Summary
  28. Chapter 20 Upgrading from VI3.5 to vSphere 4
    1. A Clean Install or an Upgrade?
    2. Upgrading Using VMware Update Manager
      1. Upgrading vCenter and the Client
      2. Upgrading vCenter Components
      3. Upgrading ESX Hosts Using VUM
      4. Upgrading VMware Tools with VUM
      5. Upgrading Virtual Hardware with VUM
    3. Upgrading ESXi Hosts Using the Host Update Utility
    4. Upgrading VMs with CLI Tools
      1. Per-ESX Host Virtual Hardware and VMware Tools Update
      2. Per VM Virtual Hardware and VMware Tools Update
    5. Summary
    6. Conclusion
  29. Index