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Visualization Analysis and Design

Book Description

Learn How to Design Effective Visualization Systems

Visualization Analysis and Design provides a systematic, comprehensive framework for thinking about visualization in terms of principles and design choices. The book features a unified approach encompassing information visualization techniques for abstract data, scientific visualization techniques for spatial data, and visual analytics techniques for interweaving data transformation and analysis with interactive visual exploration. It emphasizes the careful validation of effectiveness and the consideration of function before form.

The book breaks down visualization design according to three questions: what data users need to see, why users need to carry out their tasks, and how the visual representations proposed can be constructed and manipulated. It walks readers through the use of space and color to visually encode data in a view, the trade-offs between changing a single view and using multiple linked views, and the ways to reduce the amount of data shown in each view. The book concludes with six case studies analyzed in detail with the full framework.

The book is suitable for a broad set of readers, from beginners to more experienced visualization designers. It does not assume any previous experience in programming, mathematics, human–computer interaction, or graphic design and can be used in an introductory visualization course at the graduate or undergraduate level.

Table of Contents

  1. Preliminaries
    1. Why a New Book?
    2. Existing Books
    3. Audience
    4. Who’s Who
    5. Structure: What’s in This Book
    6. What’s Not in This Book
    7. Acknowledgments
    1. 1.1 The Big Picture
    2. 1.2 Why Have a Human in the Loop?
    3. 1.3 Why Have a Computer in the Loop?
    4. 1.4 Why Use an External Representation?
    5. 1.5 Why Depend on Vision?
    6. 1.6 Why Show the Data in Detail?
    7. 1.7 Why Use Interactivity?
    8. 1.8 Why Is the Vis Idiom Design Space Huge?
    9. 1.9 Why Focus on Tasks?
    10. 1.10 Why Focus on Effectiveness?
    11. 1.11 Why Are Most Designs Ineffective?
    12. 1.12 Why Is Validation Difficult?
    13. 1.13 Why Are There Resource Limitations?
    14. 1.14 Why Analyze?
    15. 1.15 Further Reading
      1. Figure 1.1
      2. Figure 1.2
      3. Figure 1.3
      4. Figure 1.4
      5. Figure 1.5
      6. Figure 1.6
      7. Figure 1.7
      8. Figure 1.8
    1. 2.1 The Big Picture
    2. 2.2 Why Do Data Semantics and Types Matter?
    3. 2.3 Data Types
    4. 2.4 Dataset Types
      1. 2.4.1 Tables
      2. 2.4.2 Networks and Trees
        1. 2.4.2.1 Trees
      3. 2.4.3 Fields
        1. 2.4.3.1 Spatial Fields
        2. 2.4.3.2 Grid Types
      4. 2.4.4 Geometry
      5. 2.4.5 Other Combinations
      6. 2.4.6 Dataset Availability
    5. 2.5 Attribute Types
      1. 2.5.1 Categorical
      2. 2.5.2 Ordered: Ordinal and Quantitative
        1. 2.5.2.1 Sequential versus Diverging
        2. 2.5.2.2 Cyclic
      3. 2.5.3 Hierarchical Attributes
    6. 2.6 Semantics
      1. 2.6.1 Key versus Value Semantics
        1. 2.6.1.1 Flat Tables
        2. 2.6.1.2 Multidimensional Tables
        3. 2.6.1.3 Fields
        4. 2.6.1.4 Scalar Fields
        5. 2.6.1.5 Vector Fields
        6. 2.6.1.6 Tensor Fields
        7. 2.6.1.7 Field Semantics
      2. 2.6.2 Temporal Semantics
        1. 2.6.2.1 Time-Varying Data
      3. 2.7 Further Reading
      1. Figure 2.1
      2. Figure 2.2
      3. Figure 2.3
      4. Figure 2.4
      5. Figure 2.5
      6. Figure 2.6
      7. Figure 2.7
      8. Figure 2.8
      9. Figure 2.9
    1. 3.1 The Big Picture
    2. 3.2 Why Analyze Tasks Abstractly?
    3. 3.3 Who: Designer or User
    4. 3.4 Actions
      1. 3.4.1 Analyze
        1. 3.4.1.1 Discover
        2. 3.4.1.2 Present
        3. 3.4.1.3 Enjoy
      2. 3.4.2 Produce
        1. 3.4.2.1 Annotate
        2. 3.4.2.2 Record
        3. 3.4.2.3 Derive
      3. 3.4.3 Search
        1. 3.4.3.1 Lookup
        2. 3.4.3.2 Locate
        3. 3.4.3.3 Browse
        4. 3.4.3.4 Explore
      4. 3.4.4 Query
        1. 3.4.4.1 Identify
        2. 3.4.4.2 Compare
        3. 3.4.4.3 Summarize
    5. 3.5 Targets
    6. 3.6 How: A Preview
    7. 3.7 Analyzing and Deriving: Examples
      1. 3.7.1 Comparing Two Idioms
      2. 3.7.2 Deriving One Attribute
      3. 3.7.3 Deriving Many New Attributes
    8. 3.8 Further Reading
      1. Figure 3.1
      2. Figure 3.2
      3. Figure 3.3
      4. Figure 3.4
      5. Figure 3.5
      6. Figure 3.6
      7. Figure 3.7
      8. Figure 3.8
      9. Figure 3.9
      10. Figure 3.10
      11. Figure 3.11
      12. Figure 3.12
      13. Figure 3.13
    1. 4.1 The Big Picture
    2. 4.2 Why Validate?
    3. 4.3 Four Levels of Design
      1. 4.3.1 Domain Situation
      2. 4.3.2 Task and Data Abstraction
      3. 4.3.3 Visual Encoding and Interaction Idiom
      4. 4.3.4 Algorithm
    4. 4.4 Angles of Attack
    5. 4.5 Threats to Validity
    6. 4.6 Validation Approaches
      1. 4.6.1 Domain Validation
      2. 4.6.2 Abstraction Validation
      3. 4.6.3 Idiom Validation
      4. 4.6.4 Algorithm Validation
      5. 4.6.5 Mismatches
    7. 4.7 Validation Examples
      1. 4.7.1 Genealogical Graphs
      2. 4.7.2 MatrixExplorer
      3. 4.7.3 Flow Maps
      4. 4.7.4 LiveRAC
      5. 4.7.5 LinLog
      6. 4.7.6 Sizing the Horizon
    8. 4.8 Further Reading
      1. Figure 4.1
      2. Figure 4.2
      3. Figure 4.3
      4. Figure 4.4
      5. Figure 4.5
      6. Figure 4.6
      7. Figure 4.7
      8. Figure 4.8
      9. Figure 4.9
      10. Figure 4.10
      11. Figure 4.11
      12. Figure 4.12
      13. Figure 4.13
      14. Figure 4.14
      15. Figure 4.15
      16. Figure 4.16
      17. Figure 4.17
    1. 5.1 The Big Picture
    2. 5.2 Why Marks and Channels?
    3. 5.3 Defining Marks and Channels
      1. 5.3.1 Channel Types
      2. 5.3.2 Mark Types
    4. 5.4 Using Marks and Channels
      1. 5.4.1 Expressiveness and Effectiveness
      2. 5.4.2 Channel Rankings
    5. 5.5 Channel Effectiveness
      1. 5.5.1 Accuracy
      2. 5.5.2 Discriminability
      3. 5.5.3 Separability
      4. 5.5.4 Popout
      5. 5.5.5 Grouping
    6. 5.6 Relative versus Absolute Judgements
    7. 5.7 Further Reading
      1. Figure 5.1
      2. Figure 5.2
      3. Figure 5.3
      4. Figure 5.4
      5. Figure 5.5
      6. Figure 5.6
      7. Figure 5.7
      8. Figure 5.8
      9. Figure 5.9
      10. Figure 5.10
      11. Figure 5.11
      12. Figure 5.12
      13. Figure 5.13
      14. Figure 5.14
      15. Figure 5.15
    1. 6.1 The Big Picture
    2. 6.2 Why and When to Follow Rules of Thumb?
    3. 6.3 No Unjustified 3D
      1. 6.3.1 The Power of the Plane
      2. 6.3.2 The Disparity of Depth
      3. 6.3.3 Occlusion Hides Information
      4. 6.3.4 Perspective Distortion Dangers
      5. 6.3.5 Other Depth Cues
      6. 6.3.6 Tilted Text Isn’t Legibile
      7. 6.3.7 Benefits of 3D: Shape Perception
      8. 6.3.8 Justification and Alternatives
      9. 6.3.9 Empirical Evidence
    4. 6.4 No Unjustified 2D
    5. 6.5 Eyes Beat Memory
      1. 6.5.1 Memory and Attention
      2. 6.5.2 Animation versus Side-by-Side Views
      3. 6.5.3 Change Blindness
    6. 6.6 Resolution over Immersion
    7. 6.7 Overview First, Zoom and Filter, Details on Demand
    8. 6.8 Responsiveness Is Required
      1. 6.8.1 Visual Feedback
      2. 6.8.2 Latency and Interaction Design
      3. 6.8.3 Interactivity Costs
    9. 6.9 Get It Right in Black and White
    10. 6.10 Function First, Form Next
    11. 6.11 Further Reading
      1. Figure 6.1
      2. Figure 6.2
      3. Figure 6.3
      4. Figure 6.4
      5. Figure 6.5
      6. Figure 6.6
      7. Figure 6.7
      8. Figure 6.8
      9. Figure 6.9
    1. 7.1 The Big Picture
    2. 7.2 Why Arrange?
    3. 7.3 Arrange by Keys and Values
    4. 7.4 Express: Quantitative Values
    5. 7.5 Separate, Order, and Align: Categorical Regions
      1. 7.5.1 List Alignment: One Key
      2. 7.5.2 Matrix Alignment: Two Keys
      3. 7.5.3 Volumetric Grid: Three Keys
      4. 7.5.4 Recursive Subdivision: Multiple Keys
    6. 7.6 Spatial Axis Orientation
      1. 7.6.1 Rectilinear Layouts
      2. 7.6.2 Parallel Layouts
      3. 7.6.3 Radial Layouts
    7. 7.7 Spatial Layout Density
      1. 7.7.1 Dense
      2. 7.7.2 Space-Filling
    8. 7.8 Further Reading
      1. Figure 7.1
      2. Figure 7.2
      3. Figure 7.3
      4. Figure 7.4
      5. Figure 7.5
      6. Figure 7.6
      7. Figure 7.7
      8. Figure 7.8
      9. Figure 7.9
      10. Figure 7.10
      11. Figure 7.11
      12. Figure 7.12
      13. Figure 7.13
      14. Figure 7.14
      15. Figure 7.15
      16. Figure 7.16
      17. Figure 7.17
      18. Figure 7.18
      19. Figure 7.19
      20. Figure 7.20
    1. 8.1 The Big Picture
    2. 8.2 Why Use Given?
    3. 8.3 Geometry
      1. 8.3.1 Geographic Data
      2. 8.3.2 Other Derived Geometry
    4. 8.4 Scalar Fields: One Value
      1. 8.4.1 Isocontours
      2. 8.4.2 Direct Volume Rendering
    5. 8.5 Vector Fields: Multiple Values
      1. 8.5.1 Flow Glyphs
      2. 8.5.2 Geometric Flow
      3. 8.5.3 Texture Flow
      4. 8.5.4 Feature Flow
    6. 8.6 Tensor Fields: Many Values
    7. 8.7 Further Reading
      1. Figure 8.1
      2. Figure 8.2
      3. Figure 8.3
      4. Figure 8.4
      5. Figure 8.5
      6. Figure 8.6
      7. Figure 8.7
      8. Figure 8.8
      9. Figure 8.9
      10. Figure 8.10
      11. Figure 8.11
      12. Figure 8.12
    1. 9.1 The Big Picture
    2. 9.2 Connection: Link Marks
    3. 9.3 Matrix Views
    4. 9.4 Costs and Benefits: Connection versus Matrix
    5. 9.5 Containment: Hierarchy Marks
    6. 9.6 Further Reading
      1. Figure 9.1
      2. Figure 9.2
      3. Figure 9.3
      4. Figure 9.4
      5. Figure 9.5
      6. Figure 9.6
      7. Figure 9.7
      8. Figure 9.8
      9. Figure 9.9
      10. Figure 9.10
    1. 10.1 The Big Picture
    2. 10.2 Color Theory
      1. 10.2.1 Color Vision
      2. 10.2.2 Color Spaces
      3. 10.2.3 Luminance, Saturation, and Hue
      4. 10.2.4 Transparency
    3. 10.3 Colormaps
      1. 10.3.1 Categorical Colormaps
      2. 10.3.2 Ordered Colormaps
      3. 10.3.3 Bivariate Colormaps
      4. 10.3.4 Colorblind-Safe Colormap Design
    4. 10.4 Other Channels
      1. 10.4.1 Size Channels
      2. 10.4.2 Angle Channel
      3. 10.4.3 Curvature Channel
      4. 10.4.4 Shape Channel
      5. 10.4.5 Motion Channels
      6. 10.4.6 Texture and Stippling
    5. 10.5 Further Reading
      1. Figure 10.1
      2. Figure 10.2
      3. Figure 10.3
      4. Figure 10.4
      5. Figure 10.5
      6. Figure 10.6
      7. Figure 10.7
      8. Figure 10.8
      9. Figure 10.9
      10. Figure 10.10
      11. Figure 10.11
      12. Figure 10.12
      13. Figure 10.13
      14. Figure 10.14
    1. 11.1 The Big Picture
    2. 11.2 Why Change?
    3. 11.3 Change View over Time
    4. 11.4 Select Elements
      1. 11.4.1 Selection Design Choices
      2. 11.4.2 Highlighting
      3. 11.4.3 Selection Outcomes
    5. 11.5 Navigate: Changing Viewpoint
      1. 11.5.1 Geometric Zooming
      2. 11.5.2 Semantic Zooming
      3. 11.5.3 Constrained Navigation
    6. 11.6 Navigate: Reducing Attributes
      1. 11.6.1 Slice
      2. 11.6.2 Cut
      3. 11.6.3 Project
    7. 11.7 Further Reading
      1. Figure 11.1
      2. Figure 11.2
      3. Figure 11.3
      4. Figure 11.4
      5. Figure 11.5
      6. Figure 11.6
      7. Figure 11.7
      8. Figure 11.8
      9. Figure 11.9
    1. 12.1 The Big Picture
    2. 12.2 Why Facet?
    3. 12.3 Juxtapose and Coordinate Views
      1. 12.3.1 Share Encoding: Same/Different
      2. 12.3.2 Share Data: All, Subset, None
      3. 12.3.3 Share Navigation: Synchronize
      4. 12.3.4 Combinations
      5. 12.3.5 Juxtapose Views
    4. 12.4 Partition into Views
      1. 12.4.1 Regions, Glyphs, and Views
      2. 12.4.2 List Alignments
      3. 12.4.3 Matrix Alignments
      4. 12.4.4 Recursive Subdivision
    5. 12.5 Superimpose Layers
      1. 12.5.1 Visually Distinguishable Layers
      2. 12.5.2 Static Layers
      3. 12.5.3 Dynamic Layers
    6. 12.6 Further Reading
      1. Figure 12.1
      2. Figure 12.2
      3. Figure 12.3
      4. Figure 12.4
      5. Figure 12.5
      6. Figure 12.6
      7. Figure 12.7
      8. Figure 12.8
      9. Figure 12.9
      10. Figure 12.10
      11. Figure 12.11
      12. Figure 12.12
      13. Figure 12.13
      14. Figure 12.14
      15. Figure 12.15
      16. Figure 12.16
      17. Figure 12.17
    1. 13.1 The Big Picture
    2. 13.2 Why Reduce?
    3. 13.3 Filter
      1. 13.3.1 Item Filtering
      2. 13.3.2 Attribute Filtering
    4. 13.4 Aggregate
      1. 13.4.1 Item Aggregation
      2. 13.4.2 Spatial Aggregation
      3. 13.4.3 Attribute Aggregation: Dimensionality Reduction
        1. 13.4.3.1 Why and When to Use DR?
        2. 13.4.3.2 How to Show DR Data?
    5. 13.5 Further Reading
      1. Figure 13.1
      2. Figure 13.2
      3. Figure 13.3
      4. Figure 13.4
      5. Figure 13.5
      6. Figure 13.6
      7. Figure 13.7
      8. Figure 13.8
      9. Figure 13.9
      10. Figure 13.10
      11. Figure 13.11
      12. Figure 13.12
      13. Figure 13.13
    1. 14.1 The Big Picture
    2. 14.2 Why Embed?
    3. 14.3 Elide
    4. 14.4 Superimpose
    5. 14.5 Distort
    6. 14.6 Costs and Benefits: Distortion
    7. 14.7 Further Reading
      1. Figure 14.1
      2. Figure 14.2
      3. Figure 14.3
      4. Figure 14.4
      5. Figure 14.5
      6. Figure 14.6
      7. Figure 14.7
      8. Figure 14.8
      9. Figure 14.9
      10. Figure 14.10
    1. 15.1 The Big Picture
    2. 15.2 Why Analyze Case Studies?
    3. 15.3 Graph-Theoretic Scagnostics
    4. 15.4 VisDB
    5. 15.5 Hierarchical Clustering Explorer
    6. 15.6 PivotGraph
    7. 15.7 InterRing
    8. 15.8 Constellation
    9. 15.9 Further Reading
      1. Figure 15.1
      2. Figure 15.2
      3. Figure 15.3
      4. Figure 15.4
      5. Figure 15.5
      6. Figure 15.6
      7. Figure 15.7
      8. Figure 15.8
      9. Figure 15.9
      10. Figure 15.10
      11. Figure 15.11
      12. Figure 15.12
      13. Figure 15.13
      14. Figure 15.14
      15. Figure 15.15
      16. Figure 15.16
      17. Figure 15.17
      18. Figure 15.18
      19. Figure 15.19
      20. Figure 15.20