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Visual Effects Society Handbook by Susan Zwerman, Susan Zwerman, Jeffrey A. Okun

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When a creature is very close or small, then it may be useful to place ping-pong or tennis balls on rods. These would be placed at the eye position. This has the advantage of supplying not just the eye line for the actor but also something to motion track in postproduction. The small size means the rendered CG creature will cover the reference and not require painting out of the rig.

For The Mask (1994) a real clock was hand moved on the set to represent the CG animation to be added later. This was not only a reference for the actor and director but also for the technical directors and digital lighting artists who could use the real clock as a lighting and material guide and for the animators to use the motion at least as a rough guide.

Shooting ...

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