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Visible Light Communication

Book Description

Visible light communication (VLC) is an evolving communication technology for short-range applications. Exploiting recent advances in the development of high-power visible-light emitting LEDs, VLC offers an energy-efficient, clean alternative to RF technology, enabling the development of optical wireless communication systems that make use of existing lighting infrastructure. Drawing on the expertise of leading researchers from across the world, this concise book sets out the theoretical principles of VLC, and outlines key applications of this cutting-edge technology. Providing insight into modulation techniques, positioning and communication, synchronisation, and industry standards, as well as techniques for improving network performance, this is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers in the fields of visible light communication, optical wireless communication, and industrial practitioners in the field of telecommunications.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. Half title page
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Contents
  6. List of contributors
  7. Acknowledgment
  8. 1 Introduction
  9. 2 Modulation techniques with lighting constraints
    1. 2.1 Inverse source coding in dimmable VLC
      1. 2.1.1 ISC for NRZ-OOK
      2. 2.1.2 ISC for M-ary PAM
      3. 2.1.3 Comparisons with respect to dimming capacity
    2. 2.2 Multi-level transmission in dimmable VLC
      1. 2.2.1 Multi-level transmission scheme
      2. 2.2.2 Asymptotic performance
      3. 2.2.3 Simulation results
    3. 2.3 Color intensity modulation for multi-colored VLC
      1. 2.3.1 Color space and signal space
      2. 2.3.2 Color intensity modulation
  10. 3 Performance enhancement techniques for indoor VLC systems
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Performance improvement of VLC systems by tilting the receiver plane
      1. 3.2.1 SNR analysis of VLC system with a single LED lamp
      2. 3.2.2 Receiver plane tilting technique to reduce SNR variation
      3. 3.2.3 Multiple LED lamps with the receiver plane tilting technique
      4. 3.2.4 Spectral efficiency
    3. 3.3 Performance improvement of VLC systems by arranging LED lamps
      1. 3.3.1 Arrangement of LED lamps
      2. 3.3.2 BER analysis
      3. 3.3.3 Channel capacity analysis
    4. 3.4 Dimming control technique and its performance in VLC systems
      1. 3.4.1 Bipolar OOK signal under dimming control
      2. 3.4.2 Adaptive M-QAM OFDM signal under dimming control
    5. 3.5 Summary
  11. 4 Light positioning system (LPS)
    1. 4.1 Indoor positioning and merits of using light
      1. 4.1.1 Introduction to indoor positioning
      2. 4.1.2 Spectrum crunch and future mobile system
      3. 4.1.3 Advantages of VLC-based positioning
    2. 4.2 Positioning algorithms
      1. 4.2.1 Triangulation
      2. 4.2.2 Triangulation – circular lateration
      3. 4.2.3 Triangulation – hyperbolic lateration
      4. 4.2.4 Triangulation – angulation
      5. 4.2.5 Scene analysis
      6. 4.2.6 Proximity
      7. 4.2.7 Comparison of positioning techniques
    3. 4.3 Challenges and solutions
      1. 4.3.1 Multipath reflections
      2. 4.3.2 Synchronization
      3. 4.3.3 Channel multi-access
      4. 4.3.4 Service outage
      5. 4.3.5 Privacy
    4. 4.4 Summary
  12. 5 Visible light positioning and communication
    1. 5.1 Introduction
      1. 5.1.1 Indoor light positioning system
      2. 5.1.2 Outdoor light positioning system
    2. 5.2 Indoor light positioning systems based on visible light communication and imaging sensors
      1. 5.2.1 System description
      2. 5.2.2 LPS with known LED positions
      3. 5.2.3 Monte-Carlo simulation results
    3. 5.3 Outdoor light positioning systems based on LED traffic lights and photodiodes
      1. 5.3.1 Light positioning system
      2. 5.3.2 Calibration of error induced by non-coplanar geometry
      3. 5.3.3 Numerical results
    4. 5.4 Summary
  13. 6 The standard for visible light communication
    1. 6.1 Scope of VLC standard
      1. 6.1.1 VLC service area compatibility
      2. 6.1.2 VLC illumination compatibility
      3. 6.1.3 VLC vendor compatibility
      4. 6.1.4 Standard compatibility
    2. 6.2 VLC modulation standard
      1. 6.2.1 Variable pulse position modulation VPPM
      2. 6.2.2 Line coding
    3. 6.3 VLC data transmission standard
      1. 6.3.1 Wired transmission protocol
      2. 6.3.2 Wireless transmission protocol
    4. 6.4 VLC illumination standard
      1. 6.4.1 LED lighting source interface
      2. 6.4.2 Fixture interface
      3. 6.4.3 LED intelligent system lighting interface
      4. 6.4.4 VLC service standard
  14. 7 Synchronization issues in visible light communication
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 VLC modulation methods in the time domain
      1. 7.2.1 On off keying (OOK)
      2. 7.2.2 Pulse position modulation (PPM)
      3. 7.2.3 Inverse pulse position modulation (IPPM)
      4. 7.2.4 Variable pulse position modulation (VPPM)
    3. 7.3 Bit error rate calculation
      1. 7.3.1 OOK BER
      2. 7.3.2 PPM BER
      3. 7.3.3 IPPM BER
      4. 7.3.4 VPPM BER
    4. 7.4 The effect of synchronization time offset on IPPM BER
      1. 7.4.1 The effect of clock jitter on IPPM BER
    5. 7.5 Summary
  15. 8 DMT modulation for VLC
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Indoor application scenarios
    3. 8.3 Aspects of high-speed VLC transmission
      1. 8.3.1 LED modulation bandwidth
      2. 8.3.2 Channel capacity
      3. 8.3.3 Considerations on high-speed LED modulation
    4. 8.4 DMT modulation and variants
      1. 8.4.1 DC-biased DMT
      2. 8.4.2 Asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM)
      3. 8.4.3 Pulse-amplitude-modulated discrete multitone (PAM-DMT)
      4. 8.4.4 DMT/OFDM performance and mitigation of disruptive effects
    5. 8.5 Performance enhancement of DMT modulation
      1. 8.5.1 Combination of ACO-OFDM and DC-biased DMT modulation
      2. 8.5.2 Spectrally factorized OFDM
      3. 8.5.3 Flip-OFDM
      4. 8.5.4 Unipolar OFDM
      5. 8.5.5 Position modulating OFDM
      6. 8.5.6 Diversity-combined OFDM
      7. 8.5.7 Further approaches
    6. 8.6 System design and implementation aspects
      1. 8.6.1 Aspects of system design
      2. 8.6.2 DMT/OFDM application in advanced systems
      3. 8.6.3 Practical implementation issues
      4. 8.6.4 Implementation and demonstration
    7. 8.7 Summary
  16. 9 Image sensor based visible light communication
    1. 9.1 Overview
    2. 9.2 Image sensors
      1. 9.2.1 CCD image sensor
      2. 9.2.2 CMOS image sensor
      3. 9.2.3 Comparing CCD image sensors, CMOS image sensors, and photodiodes (PD)
    3. 9.3 Image sensor as a VLC receiver
      1. 9.3.1 Temporal sampling
      2. 9.3.2 Spatial sampling
      3. 9.3.3 Maximal achievable data rate
    4. 9.4 Design of an image sensor based VLC system
      1. 9.4.1 Transmitter
      2. 9.4.2 Receiver
      3. 9.4.3 Channel
      4. 9.4.4 Field-of-view (FOV)
      5. 9.4.5 Effect of communication distance and spatial frequency
    5. 9.5 Massively parallel visible light transmission
      1. 9.5.1 Concept
      2. 9.5.2 System architecture
      3. 9.5.3 Link establishment
      4. 9.5.4 Prototype of a massively parallel data transmission system
    6. 9.6 Accurate sensor pose estimation
      1. 9.6.1 Overview
      2. 9.6.2 Single view geometry
      3. 9.6.3 Pose estimation using lights
      4. 9.6.4 Light extraction
    7. 9.7 Applications of image sensor based communication
      1. 9.7.1 Traffic signal communication
      2. 9.7.2 Position measurements for civil engineering
    8. 9.8 Summary
  17. Index