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View Camera Technique, 7th Edition

Book Description

Now in its seventh edition, View Camera Technique is a unique, comprehensive book that presents clearly and precisely the features, operations and applications of view cameras. It details camera movements, image formation, exposure control, and information concerning lenses and accessories. Diagrams, comparison charts, and more than 500 photographs and illustrations by distinguished professional photographers provide the reader with the tools necessary to analyze a picture situation, set up and manipulate the camera, and portray the subject to meet the expectations of the professional photographer.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. 1 View Cameras
    1. 1.1 View Cameras
    2. 1.2 Ground-Glass Viewing
    3. 1.3 Lateral, Vertical, and Angular Adjustments
    4. 1.4 Interchangeable Lenses
    5. 1.5 Flexible Bellows
    6. 1.6 Large Film Size
    7. 1.7 Camera Support
    8. 1.8 Advantages and Limitations of View Cameras
  8. 2 View Camera Adjustments
    1. 2.1 View Camera Adjustments
    2. 2.2 Focusing Principles
    3. 2.3 Focusing and Depth of Field
    4. 2.4 Tilts and Swings
    5. 2.5 Controlling Image Shape
    6. 2.6 Controlling the Plane of Sharp Focus
    7. 2.7 Simultaneous Use of Tilts and Swings
    8. 2.8 Vertical and Horizontal Shifts
    9. 2.9 Film Rotation
    10. 2.10 Effect of Back Movements on Image Shape
    11. 2.11 Effect of Back Movements on Image Sharpness
    12. 2.12 Effect of Lens Movements on Image Sharpness
    13. 2.13 Types of Movement Limitations
    14. 2.14 Focusing Limitations
    15. 2.15 Lens Movement Limitations
    16. 2.16 Back Movement Limitations
    17. 2.17 Anamorphic Effects
  9. 3 Image Formation
    1. 3.1 Image Formation with a Pinhole
    2. 3.2 Image Formation with a Simple Lens
    3. 3.3 Lens Terminology
      1. Spherical Surfaces
      2. Center and Radius of Curvature
      3. Positive Lenses
      4. Negative Lenses
      5. Lens Axis
      6. Optical Center
      7. Nodal Points
      8. Nodal Planes
      9. Object and Image Distances
      10. Principal Focal Point
      11. Focal Length
      12. Angle of View
      13. Circle of Good Definition
      14. Angle of Coverage
      15. Circle of Illumination
    4. 3.4 Image Formation with a Multiple-Element Lens
    5. 3.5 Typical Image Formation Problems
    6. 3.6 Graphic Drawings
    7. 3.7 Lens Formulas
  10. 4 Exposure Controls
    1. 4.1 Camera and Photographic Exposure
    2. 4.2 f-Numbers
    3. 4.3 Whole Stops
    4. 4.4 Maximum Diaphragm Openings
    5. 4.5 Minimum Diaphragm Openings
    6. 4.6 Intermediate f-Numbers
    7. 4.7 Limitations of the f-Number System
    8. 4.8 Supplementary Lenses and Effective f-Numbers
    9. 4.9 Lens Transmittance
    10. 4.10 Lens and Focal Plane Shutters
    11. 4.11 Types of Lens Shutters
    12. 4.12 Other Exposure Controls
    13. 4.13 Flash Synchronizationa
  11. 5 View Camera Lenses
    1. 5.1 Basic Differences Between Lenses
    2. 5.2 Types of Lenses
      1. Normal Lenses
      2. Telephoto Lenses
      3. Wide-Angle Lenses
      4. Specialized Lenses
      5. Supplementary Lenses
      6. Convertible Lenses
      7. Variable Focal Length and Zoom Lenses
      8. Closeup and Macro Lenses
      9. Process Lenses
      10. Enlarger Lenses
      11. Soft-Focus Lenses
      12. Magnifying Lenses
    3. 5.3 Lens Shortcomings
      1. Image Definition
      2. Image Shape
      3. Uniformity of Illumination
      4. Non-Image-Forming Light
      5. Chromatic Aberration
      6. Image Color
    4. 5.4 Lens Testing
  12. 6 Image Size and Perspective
    1. 6.1 Perspective
      1. Linear Perspective
      2. Overlap
      3. Depth of Field
      4. Lighting
      5. Aerial Haze
      6. Color
    2. 6.2 Focal Length with Distant Objects
    3. 6.3 Focal Length Limitations at Close Range
    4. 6.4 Maximum Scale of Reproduction
      1. Scale of Reproduction and Bellows Extension
      2. Scale of Reproduction and Focal Length
      3. Scale of Reproduction, Focal Length, and Object Distance
    5. 6.5 Closeup Photography, Photomacrography, and Photomicrography
    6. 6.6 Image Definition of Photomacrographs
      1. Change the Aperture
      2. Reverse the Lens
      3. Use a Positive Supplementary Lens
      4. Substitute a Lens Designed for Use with Shorter Object Distances
    7. 6.7 Lighting for Photomacrographs
    8. 6.8 Perspective
    9. 6.9 Object Distance and Perspective
    10. 6.10 Focal Length and Perspective
    11. 6.11 Simultaneous Changes in Object Distance and Focal Length
    12. 6.12 Use of Camera Movements Versus Changing Object Distance
    13. 6.13 Apparent Perspective Effects
      1. Viewing Distance
      2. Cropping
    14. 6.14 Wide-Angle Effect
    15. 6.15 Trick Perspective
  13. 7 Depth of Field
    1. 7.1 Resolution of the Eye
    2. 7.2 Viewing Distance and Cropping
    3. 7.3 Depth-of-Field Controls
      1. Relative Aperture
      2. Object Distance
      3. Focal Length
    4. 7.4 Swings and Tilts, and Depth of Field
    5. 7.5 Depth-of-Field Limits
    6. 7.6 Depth-of-Field Tables
    7. 7.7 Depth-of-Field Scales
    8. 7.8 Checking the Depth of Field
    9. 7.9 Calculating the Depth of Field
    10. 7.10 Depth of Focus
  14. 8 Exposure Meters
    1. 8.1 Exposure Latitude
    2. 8.2 Effects of Underexposure and Overexposure
    3. 8.3 Exposure Meters
    4. 8.4 Reflected-Light Exposure Meters
    5. 8.5 Incident-Light Exposure Meters
    6. 8.6 Reflected-Light Exposure Meter Readings
    7. 8.7 Camera Position Readings
    8. 8.8 Midtone Reflected-Light Readings
    9. 8.9 Brightness-Range Method
    10. 8.10 Keytone Method
    11. 8.11 Zone System
    12. 8.12 Limitations of Reflected-Light Readings
    13. 8.13 Incident-Light Readings
    14. 8.14 Light Diffuser Shape
    15. 8.15 Limitations of Incident-Light Readings
    16. 8.16 Film Plane Measurements
    17. 8.17 Electronic-Flash Exposure Meters
    18. 8.18 Causes of Inaccurate Exposure
  15. 9 Light-Sensitive Materials and Film Processing
    1. 9.1 Film Sizes
    2. 9.2 Film and Picture Proportions
    3. 9.3 Sheet Film
    4. 9.4 Loading Film Holders
    5. 9.5 Film Types
    6. 9.6 Characteristics of Black-and-White Film
    7. 9.7 Film Speed
    8. 9.8 Reciprocity Effects
    9. 9.9 Image Structure
      1. Graininess/Granularity
      2. Detail/Resolving Power
      3. Sharpness/Acutance
    10. 9.10 Contrast and Tone-Reproduction Characteristics
    11. 9.11 Spectral Sensitivity
      1. Orthochromatic Film
      2. Panchromatic Film
      3. Infrared Film
      4. Ultraviolet Radiation
    12. 9.12 Instant Film
    13. 9.13 Color Film
    14. 9.14 Nonsilver Light-Sensitive Materials
      1. Blueprint (Cyanotype, Ferro-Prussiate)
      2. Gum Bichromate
      3. Diazo Dye Materials
      4. Electrostatic Process
    15. 9.15 Processing Sheet Film
      1. Tray Processing of Black-and-White Film
      2. Film Development Contrast
  16. 10 Filters
    1. 10.1 Filters
    2. 10.2 Color Names
    3. 10.3 Filters for Black-and-White Photography
    4. 10.4 Predicting Filter Effects
    5. 10.5 Maxwell Triangle
    6. 10.6 Filter Factors
    7. 10.7 Exposure Adjustment for Filters
    8. 10.8 Using the Maxwell Triangle
    9. 10.9 Correction Filters for Black-and-White Film
    10. 10.10 Haze Filters
    11. 10.11 Infrared Filters
    12. 10.12 Ultraviolet Filters
    13. 10.13 Filters for Color Photography
      1. Conversion Filters
      2. Light-Balancing Filters
      3. Color-Compensating Filters
    14. 10.14 Filters for Black-and-White and Color Photography
      1. Neutral-Density Filters
      2. Polarizing Filters
    15. 10.15 Safelight Filters
  17. 11 Evolution of the View Camera
    1. 11.1 Early Innovations
    2. 11.2 Negative Size
    3. 11.3 Ground-Glass and Film Holders
    4. 11.4 Multiple-Lens Cameras
    5. 11.5 Shutters and Diaphragms
    6. 11.6 Camera Beds
  18. 12 Contemporary View Cameras
    1. 12.1 Camera Tripods and Stands
    2. 12.2 View Camera Beds
      1. Flatbed Cameras
      2. Monorail Cameras
    3. 12.3 Tripod Blocks
    4. 12.4 Focusing Controls
    5. 12.5 Depth-of-Field Scales
    6. 12.6 Camera Backs
    7. 12.7 Ground-Glass Viewing
    8. 12.8 Film Holders
    9. 12.9 Camera Movements
      1. Tilts and Swings
      2. Tilt Pivot Positions
      3. Vertical and Lateral Shift Movements
      4. Camera Movements for Small-Format Cameras
    10. 12.10 Lens and Shutter Controls
    11. 12.11 View Camera Bellows
    12. 12.12 Modular View Cameras and Accessories
    13. 12.13 Electronic Innovations
    14. 12.14 Electronic Photography
      1. Electronic Still Photography
      2. Analog/Digitala
      3. Light Sensors
      4. Area and Linear CCD Arrays
      5. Digital Color
      6. CMOS Sensors
    15. 12.15 Computers and Digital Imaging
      1. Digital Image Processing
      2. Digital View Cameras
      3. Image Capture Software
      4. Digital Images
    16. 12.16 View Camera Features and Specifications
    17. 12.17 Contemporary View Cameras and Prices
    18. 12.18 Table of Features and Specifications
    19. 12.19 View Camera Lenses
  19. 13 Applications of View Camera Photography
    1. 13.1 Areas of Specialization
    2. 13.2 Architecture
    3. 13.3 Portraiture
    4. 13.4 Catalog Photography
    5. 13.5 Landscape Photography
    6. 13.6 Advertising Photography
      1. Multiple Exposures
      2. Motion
      3. Strong and Weak Perspective
      4. Image Size and Format Shape
      5. Image Unsharpness
      6. Other Special Effects
    7. 13.7 Exhibition Photography
    8. 13.8 Expressive Photography
    9. 13.9 Photocopying
    10. 13.10 Technical Photography
  20. Index