You are previewing Video Systems in an IT Environment.
O'Reilly logo
Video Systems in an IT Environment

Book Description

Audio/Video (AV) systems and Information Technology (IT) are colliding. Broadcasters and other AV professionals are impacted by the transition to IT components and techniques. This is the first book to focus on the intersection of AV and IT concepts. It includes technology reviews and the tools to understand and evaluate key aspects of hybrid AV systems. Twelve chapters encompass a broad range of information including: IT integration, AV networking, storage systems, file and metadata formats, software platforms, reliability, element management, security, workflow improvement, AV technology, transition issues, and real-world case studies. Each chapter weaves together IT and AV techniques providing the reader with actionable information on the issues, processes and principles of seamless AV/IT systems integration.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Introduction
  8. 1 Networked Media in an IT Environment
    1. 1.0 Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Networked Media?
    3. 1.2 Motivation Toward Networked Media
      1. 1.2.1 Force #1: Network Infrastructure and Bandwidth
      2. 1.2.2 Force #2: CPU Compute Power
      3. 1.2.3 Force #3: Storage Density, Bandwidth, and Power
      4. 1.2.4 Force #4: IT Systems Manageability
      5. 1.2.5 Force #5: Software Architectures
      6. 1.2.6 Force #6: Interoperability
      7. 1.2.7 Force #7: User Application Functionality
      8. 1.2.8 Force #8: Reliability and Scalability
      9. 1.2.9 The Eight Forces: A Conclusion
    4. 1.3 Three Fundamental Methods of Moving AV Data
    5. 1.4 Issues with System-Wide Timing
    6. 1.5 Can ‘IT’ Meet the Demands of A/V Workflows?
    7. 1.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Methods
    8. 1.7 It’s a Wrap: Some Final Words
    9. References
  9. 2 The Basics of Professional Networked Media
    1. 2.0 Introduction
    2. 2.1 The Core Elements
    3. 2.2 Standards
    4. 2.3 AV Media Clients
      1. 2.3.1 Class 1 Media Client
      2. 2.3.2 Class 2 Media Client
      3. 2.3.3 Class 3 Media Client
      4. 2.3.4 Class 4 Media Client
      5. 2.3.5 The Classes in Perspective
    5. 2.4 File Transfer, Streaming, and Direct-to-Storage Concepts
      1. 2.4.1 File Transfer Concepts
      2. 2.4.2 Streaming Concepts
      3. 2.4.3 Direct-to-Storage Concepts
    6. 2.5 The Three Planes
    7. 2.6 Interoperability Domains
    8. 2.7 Tricks for Making IT Elements Work in Real Time
    9. 2.8 Using IT Methods to Route Traditional A/V Signals
    10. 2.9 It’s a Wrap: A Few Final Words
    11. References
  10. 3A Storage System Basics
    1. 3A.0 Introduction to Storage Systems
    2. 3A.1 Storage Virtualization and File System Methods
      1. 3A.1.1 Storage Virtualization (SV)
      2. 3A.1.2 Clustered File Systems (CFS)
      3. 3A.1.3 Volume Management
      4. 3A.1.4 Distributed File Systems (DFS)
      5. 3A.1.5 Virtualization or CFS: How to Choose
    3. 3A.2 Client Transaction Types and Storage Performance
      1. 3A.2.1 Optimizing Storage Array Data Throughput
      2. 3A.2.2 Fragmentation, OS Caching, and Command Reordering
    4. 3A.3 Storage Subsystems
      1. 3A.3.1 HDD Capacity and Access Data Rate
      2. 3A.3.2 Aggregate Array I/O Rates
      3. 3A.3.3 General Storage Requirements
    5. 3A.4 JBOD and RAID Arrays
    6. 3A.5 NAS and SAN Storage
    7. 3A.6 Object Storage
    8. 3A.7 Hierarchical and Archival Storage
      1. 3A.7.1 Data Flows across Tiered Storage
      2. 3A.7.2 Managing Storage
      3. 3A.7.3 Archive Storage Choices
    9. 3A.8 It’s a Wrap: Some Final Words
    10. References
  11. 3B Storage Access Methods
    1. 3B.0 Storage Connectivity: DAS, SAN, and NAS
    2. 3B.1 Direct Attached Storage
      1. 3B.1.1 HDD I/O Connectivity and Drive Types
      2. 3B.1.2 ATA and SCSI I/O Convergence
      3. 3B.1.3 Remote DMA: The Next Frontier
    3. 3B.2 Storage Area Networks
      1. 3B.2.1 Form Follows Function
      2. 3B.2.2 The Fibre Channel-Based SAN
      3. 3B.2.3 Hybrid SANs: Merging FC and IP
      4. 3B.2.4 IP SAN Technology Choices
      5. 3B.2.5 TCP/IP SAN Performance
      6. 3B.2.6 SAN with Virtualization and Cluster File Systems
      7. 3B.2.7 SAN Vendor Overview
    4. 3B.3 Networked Attached Storage
      1. 3B.3.1 NAS Attach Protocols
      2. 3B.3.2 NAS Vendors and Product Features
      3. 3B.3.3 AV-Friendly NAS Connectivity
      4. 3B.3.4 NAS and Server Clustering
      5. 3B.3.5 NAS, SAN, and the Future
    5. 3B.4 Caching Methods
    6. 3B.5 It’s a Wrap: Some Final Words
    7. References
  12. 4 Software Technology for AV Systems
    1. 4.0 Introduction
    2. 4.1 User Application Requirements
    3. 4.2 Software Architectures 1—The Four Types
      1. 4.2.1 Centralized Computing
      2. 4.2.2 Distributed Computing
      3. 4.2.3 Architectural Comparisons
    4. 4.3 Middleware Connectivity
      1. 4.3.1 Database Connectivity Protocols
    5. 4.4 Implementation Frameworks
      1. 4.4.1 The .NET Framework
      2. 4.4.2 The J2EE Framework
      3. 4.4.3 The CORBA Middleware Platform
      4. 4.4.4 The Connected Services Framework
      5. 4.4.5 The Burden to Choose
    6. 4.5 Open Source Software
    7. 4.6 High Performance Real Time Systems
      1. 4.6.1 Achieving Real Time OS Performance
      2. 4.6.2 Multimedia Extensions and Graphics Processors
      3. 4.6.3 64-Bit Architectures and Beyond
    8. 4.7 Software Maintenance and System Evolution
    9. 4.8 It’s a Wrap—A Few Final Words
    10. References
  13. 5 Reliability and Scalability Methods
    1. 5.0 Introduction to High-Availability Systems
    2. 5.1 HDD Reliability Metrics
      1. 5.1.1 Failure Rate Analysis Domains
    3. 5.2 Methods for High-Availability Design
      1. 5.2.1 RAID Arrays
      2. 5.2.2 RAID Level Definitions
      3. 5.2.3 RAID Clusters
    4. 5.3 Architectural Concepts for HA
      1. 5.3.1 Single Point of Failure
      2. 5.3.2 No Single Point of Failure
      3. 5.3.3 N + 1 Sparing
      4. 5.3.4 Networking with High Availability
      5. 5.3.5 Mirroring Methods
      6. 5.3.6 Replication of Storage
      7. 5.3.7 Client Caching Buys Time
      8. 5.3.8 Other Topologies for HA
      9. 5.3.9 Concealment Methods
    5. 5.4 Scaling and Upgrading System Components
    6. 5.5 It’s a Wrap—Some Final Words
    7. References
  14. 6 Networking Basics for AV
    1. 6.0 Introduction
    2. 6.1 The Seven-Layer Stack
      1. 6.1.1 Physical and Link Layers
      2. 6.1.2 The IP Network Layer
      3. 6.1.3 The Transport Layer—TCP and UDP
    3. 6.2 Virtual LANs
    4. 6.3 TCP/IP Performance
    5. 6.4 The Wide Area Network (WAN)
    6. 6.5 The Metro Area Network (MAN)
    7. 6.6 Understanding Quality of Service for Networks
      1. 6.6.1 QoS Management Techniques
      2. 6.6.2 MPLS in Action
    8. 6.7 It’s a Wrap—Some Final Words
    9. References
  15. 7 Media Systems Integration
    1. 7.0 Introduction
    2. 7.1 The Three Planes
      1. 7.1.1 The Control Plane
      2. 7.1.2 The Management Plane
      3. 7.1.3 The Data/User Plane
    3. 7.2 Wrapper Formats and MXF
      1. 7.2.1 Inside the MXF Wrapper
      2. 7.2.2 Working with MXF and Interoperability
    4. 7.3 Advanced Authoring Format—(AAF) 2
    5. 7.4 XML and Metadata
      1. 7.4.1 Metadata Standards and Schemas for AV
      2. 7.4.2 The UMID
      3. 7.4.3 ISAN and V-ISAN Content ID Tags
    6. 7.5 Media Asset Management
      1. 7.5.1 MAM Functions and Examples
      2. 7.5.2 Using DRM as Part of a MAM Solution
      3. 7.5.3 Tastes Like Chicken
    7. 7.6 AV Workflow Methods
    8. 7.7 Tying it All Together
    9. References
  16. 8 Security for Networked AV Systems
    1. 8.0 Introduction and Scope
    2. 8.1 The Threat Matrix
      1. 8.1.1 Viruses, Worms, Trojan Horses, and Malware
    3. 8.2 Prevention Tactics
      1. 8.2.1 Developing a Security Plan for System Elements
    4. 8.3 Prevention Technology
      1. 8.3.1 The Main Firewall
      2. 8.3.2 Intrusion Prevention Systems
      3. 8.3.3 Intrusion Detection System
      4. 8.3.4 Antivirus and Client Shell Software
      5. 8.3.5 The Virtual Private Network
    5. 8.4 Basics of Cryptography
      1. 8.4.1 Modern Encryption Methods
      2. 8.4.2 Keys and Key Management
      3. 8.4.3 Kerberos
      4. 8.4.4 Digital Signatures (DS)
    6. 8.5 It’s a Wrap—Some Final Words
    7. References
  17. 9 Systems Management and Monitoring
    1. 9.0 Introduction
    2. 9.1 The FCAPS Model
    3. 9.2 Traditional AV Monitoring Methods
    4. 9.3 AV/IT Monitoring Environment
      1. 9.3.1 Traditional IT Device and Network Monitoring (Mon 1)
      2. 9.3.2 A/V IP Stream Monitors (Mon 2)
      3. 9.3.3 File Transfer Progress Monitor (Mon 3)
      4. 9.3.4 AV File and Metadata Inspector (Mon 4)
    5. 9.4 Standards for Systems Management
      1. 9.4.1 The Management Information Base
      2. 9.4.2 The Simple Network Management Protocol
      3. 9.4.3 Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM)
      4. 9.4.4 Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)
    6. 9.5 Service Diagnostics
    7. 9.6 Futures—DCML
    8. 9.7 It’s a Wrap—Some Final Words
    9. Reference
  18. 10 The Transition to IT: Issues and Case Studies
    1. 10.0 Issues in the Transition to IT
    2. 10.1 Organizational and Financial
    3. 10.2 Technical Operations and Support
    4. 10.3 Operations, Users, and Workflow
    5. 10.4 Case Studies
      1. 10.4.1 Case Study: KQED, Channel 9, San Francisco
      2. 10.4.2 Case Study: PBS, NGIS Project
      3. 10.4.3 Case Study: Turner Entertainment Networks—New Centralized Broadcast Operations
    6. 10.5 Generic AV/IT System Diagram
    7. 10.6 The IT-Based Video System—Frequently Asked Questions
    8. 10.7 It’s a Wrap—Some Final Words
  19. 11 A Review of AV Basics
    1. 11.0 Introduction to AV Basics
    2. 11.1 A Digital View of an Analog World
    3. 11.2 Progressive and Interlace Images
    4. 11.3 Video Signal Timing
    5. 11.4 Video Resolutions and Aspect Ratios
    6. 11.5 Video Signal Representations
      1. 11.5.1 The RGB and R′G′B′signals
      2. 11.5.2 The Component Color Difference Signals
      3. 11.5.3 The Y′PrPb Component Analog Signal
      4. 11.5.4 The Y′CrCb Component Digital Signal
      5. 11.5.5 The Analog Composite Video Signal
      6. 11.5.6 The S_Video Signal
      7. 11.5.7 Analog and Digital Broadcast Standards
      8. 11.5.8 Professional Signal Formats—Some Conclusions
    7. 11.6 SDI Review—the Ubiquitous AV Digital Link
      1. 11.6.1 The AES/EBU Audio Link
      2. 11.6.2 The Proteus Clip Server Example
    8. 11.7 Video Signal Processing and its Applications
    9. 11.8 AV Bit Rate Reduction Techniques
      1. 11.8.1 Video Compression Overview
      2. 11.8.2 Summary of Lossy Video Compression Techniques
    10. 11.9 Video Time Code Basics
    11. 11.10 It’s a Wrap—Some Final Words
    12. References
  20. Appendix A Fast Shortcuts for Computing 2 N
  21. Appendix B Achieving Frame Accuracy in a Non-frame Accurate World
  22. Appendix C Grid, Cluster, Utility, and Symmetric Multiprocessing Computing
    1. Grid Computing
    2. Grid Computing and the Riemann Zeta Function
    3. Cluster 1 Computing
    4. Utility Computing
    5. SMP Computing
  23. Appendix D How Much Information Exists?
    1. How Much Information Exists?
  24. Appendix E 8B/10B Line Coding
  25. Appendix F Digital Hierarchies
    1. Optical Carriers in SONET and the SDH
    2. Conclusion
  26. Appendix G 270 Million—A Magic Number in Digital Video
  27. Appendix H A Novel AV Storage System
    1. Architectural Overview
    2. Summary
  28. Appendix I Is It Rabbits Multiplying or Is It Streaming?
  29. Appendix J How to Evaluate a Video Server
    1. The Three Planes
    2. The Three Architectures
    3. Storage Subsystems
    4. Scalability
    5. Reliability Issues
    6. Summary
  30. Appendix K1 Blade Servers
    1. Technology Overview
    2. The Players
    3. Blade Server Merits and Challenges
    4. Outlook
  31. A Glossary of AV/IT Terms
  32. Index