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Video Production Handbook, 5th Edition

Book Description

Techniques matter! Great ideas don't automatically translate into great programs. It's not enough simply to show what is going on. The way you present your subject will influence how your audience responds. You need to choose your picture and sound carefully, to convey your ideas in an interesting, persuasive way. This book will show you how.

Video Production Handbook shows the full production process, from inception of idea to final distribution. The book focuses especially on why each step occurs as it does and provides guidance in choosing the simplest methods of creating the shots you want in your video project. Concentrating on the techniques and concepts behind the latest equipment, this book demonstrates the fundamental principles needed to create good video content on any kind of budget.

Suitable for students and beginning videographers, the new edition of this classic text retains its clarity and directness but has been completely revised and updated.

This practical sourcebook has been specially prepared to give you an at-a-glance guide to quality video program-making on a modest budget. Emphasis throughout is on excellence with economy; whether you are working alone or with a small multi-camera group. The well-tried techniques detailed here will steer you through the hazards of production, helping you to avoid those frustrating, time-wasting problems, and to create an effective video program.

* Highly visual: more than 450 full color photos and illustrations demonstrate techniques
* Modern: Revised by Jim Owens, who brings a wealth of hands-on experience to the text; up-to-date information on current equipment, techniques, and new distribution outlets such as the Web and mobile phones
* A complete resource: Detailed teaching ancillaries are available for instructors, including instructor's manual, test bank, sample syllabi, image collection, video content, and more
* Brand new coverage of contemporary distribution methods
* Interviews featuring industry professionals provide students with inside knowledge of the industry
* Sidebars featuring new coverage of topics such as shooting for 3D, shooting with HDSLRs for video, and much more!

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Full Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. Introduction
  7. Chapter 1 Overview of Video Production
    1. 1.1 What is Video Production?
    2. 1.2 Defining the New Media
    3. 1.3 Distribution
      1. First Step in Video Production
    4. 1.4 Understanding the Field of Video Production
    5. 1.5 It’s Designed for You
    6. 1.6 Learning Basics
    7. 1.7 Remember the Purpose
    8. 1.8 Equipment
    9. 1.9 What Equipment is Needed?
    10. 1.10 Is There a Right Way?
    11. 1.11 The Production Approach
      1. Technicalities
    12. 1.12 Equipment Performance
      1. Interview: Ben Brown, Media Executive
  8. Chapter 2 Production Crew
    1. 2.1 Production Crew Size
      1. Video Production Crew Job Descriptions
    2. 2.2 Producer
    3. 2.3 Assistant Producer or Associate Producer
    4. 2.4 Director
    5. 2.5 Assistant Director or Associate Director
    6. 2.6 Production Assistant
    7. 2.7 Floor Manager or Stage Manager
    8. 2.8 Technical Director or Vision Mixer
    9. 2.9 Makeup Artist
    10. 2.10 Graphic Designer/Operator
    11. 2.11 Lighting Director/Vision Supervisor
    12. 2.12 Videographer/Camera Operator/Photographer
    13. 2.13 Camera Assistant
    14. 2.14 Audio Mixer/Sound Mixer/Sound Supervisor
    15. 2.15 Stereographer
    16. 2.16 Boom Operator or Audio Assistant
    17. 2.17 Engineer
    18. 2.18 Writer
    19. 2.19 Editor
    20. 2.20 Set Designer
      1. Professional Crew
    21. 2.21 Freelance Crew
    22. 2.22 Below-the-Line/Above-the-Line
    23. 2.23 The Structure of a Video Production Crew
    24. 2.24 What Do You Wear?
    25. 2.25 What Do You Bring with You?
      1. Interview: Tommy Mitchell, Crewer
  9. Chapter 3 Organizing the Production
    1. 3.1 Art Conceals Craft
    2. 3.2 Shot Selection
    3. 3.3 The Problem of Familiarity
    4. 3.4 The Problem of Quality
    5. 3.5 The Problem of “Bigger and Better”
    6. 3.6 Communication Can Be Elusive
    7. 3.7 Its All Starts with an Idea (concept)
    8. 3.8 Goals and Objectives
    9. 3.9 Target Audience
    10. 3.10 Research
    11. 3.11 Covering the Subject
    12. 3.12 Production Methods
    13. 3.13 The Empirical Approach
    14. 3.14 The Planned Approach
    15. 3.15 Storyboards
      1. Analyzing Action
    16. 3.16 Why Plan?
    17. 3.17 The Three Stages of Production
    18. 3.18 Coverage
    19. 3.19 Building a Production Outline
    20. 3.20 Broad Treatment
    21. 3.21 Production Research
    22. 3.22 Remote Surveys (RECCE)
    23. 3.23 Freedom to Plan
    24. 3.24 Single-Camera Shooting
    25. 3.25 Multicamera Shooting
    26. 3.26 Budgeting
    27. 3.27 Copyrights
    28. 3.28 Contracts
      1. Interview: DT Slouffman, Producer
  10. Chapter 4 Production Techniques
    1. 4.1 Single- and Multicamera Production
    2. 4.2 Multicamera ISO
    3. 4.3 Multicamera Production Without a Switcher
    4. 4.4 The Illusion of Reality
    5. 4.5 The Camera’s Role
    6. 4.6 The Camera as an Observer
    7. 4.7 The Persuasive Camera
    8. 4.8 Beginning and Ending
    9. 4.9 Production Methods
    10. 4.10 How Do You Visualize Something that Does Not Exist?
      1. Interview: Scott Rogers, Sports Producer
  11. Chapter 5 Writing for Video
    1. 5.1 The Script’s Purpose
    2. 5.2 Is a Script Needed?
    3. 5.3 Basic Script Formats
    4. 5.4 The Full Script
      1. TIPS: Tips for Writing Better Dialog: Keeping It Brief
    5. 5.5 The Drama Script
    6. 5.6 Suggestions on Scriptwriting
    7. 5.7 Be Visual
    8. 5.8 Assimilation
    9. 5.9 Relative Pace
    10. 5.10 Style
    11. 5.11 Tips on Developing the Script
      1. Interview: Robyn Sjogren, Writer
  12. Chapter 6 The Camera
    1. 6.1 A Range of Models
    2. 6.2 Cameracraft
      1. Camera Features
    3. 6.3 Main Features
    4. 6.4 The Lens System
    5. 6.5 Focal Length and Lens Angle
    6. 6.6 The Prime Lens
    7. 6.7 The Zoom Lens
    8. 6.8 Zoom Lens Remote Controls
    9. 6.9 The Aperture of the Camera
    10. 6.10 Lens Accessories
    11. 6.11 The Image Sensor
    12. 6.12 Sensitivity
    13. 6.13 The Viewfinder
    14. 6.14 Indicators
    15. 6.15 Audio
    16. 6.16 Power
      1. Controlling The Camera
    17. 6.17 Handling the Camera
    18. 6.18 Supporting the Camera
    19. 6.19 Handheld Cameras
    20. 6.20 The Monopod
    21. 6.21 The Pan Head (Panning Head or Tripod Head)
    22. 6.22 Using a Tripod
    23. 6.23 The Rolling Tripod/Tripod Dolly
    24. 6.24 The Pedestal
    25. 6.25 Gorillapod
    26. 6.26 Beanbag
    27. 6.27 Jib Arms
    28. 6.28 Specialty Camera Mounts
    29. 6.29 Handling Care
      1. Interview: Keith Brown, Videographer
  13. Chapter 7 Using the Camera
    1. 7.1 Just Point and Shoot
    2. 7.2 What Gets on the Screen?
    3. 7.3 How Close Should You Get?
    4. 7.4 How Much Can We See?
    5. 7.5 Lens Angles
    6. 7.6 So Why Move Around?
    7. 7.7 The Zooming Process
    8. 7.8 Focusing
    9. 7.9 Auto-Focus
    10. 7.10 Depth of Field
    11. 7.11 Maximum Sharpness?
    12. 7.12 Difficult to Focus?
    13. 7.13 Prefocusing the Zoom Lens
      1. Exposure
    14. 7.14 What Is “Exposure”?
    15. 7.15 Underexposure and Overexposure
    16. 7.16 Automatic Exposure
    17. 7.17 Camera Adjustments
    18. 7.18 Practical Solutions
      1. Handling The Camera
    19. 7.19 Panning and Tilting
    20. 7.20 Following Moving Subjects
    21. 7.21 Framing Movement
    22. 7.22 Walking
    23. 7.23 Shooting from Vehicles
      1. The Basics of Shooting
    24. 7.24 Practical Conditions
    25. 7.25 Selecting the Right Shots
    26. 7.26 Persuasive Shots
    27. 7.27 Guiding the Viewer Through the Scene
    28. 7.28 Clutter
    29. 7.29 I Can’t See It Properly
      1. Composing Pictures
    30. 7.30 Composition Rules and Guidelines
    31. 7.31 The Brief Shot
    32. 7.32 “Boring” Is in the Mind
    33. 7.33 Shots That Are Different
    34. 7.34 Fitting the Frame
    35. 7.35 Watch the Background
    36. 7.36 Dividing the Image into Thirds
    37. 7.37 Shooting from Different Angles
    38. 7.38 Showing Scale
    39. 7.39 Framing the Subject
    40. 7.40 Leading Lines
    41. 7.41 Headroom
    42. 7.42 Good Balance
    43. 7.43 Changing the Perspective
    44. 7.44 Grouping (Unity)
    45. 7.45 Camera Viewpoint
    46. 7.46 Distortions
      1. Anticipating Editing
    47. 7.47 Continuity
    48. 7.48 Improving Editing Flexibility
      1. More Shooting Tips
    49. 7.49 What Does a Filter Do?
    50. 7.50 Crossing the Line
      1. Interview: Nathan White: Videographer
  14. Chapter 8 Shooting People and Objects
    1. Shooting People
    2. 8.1 The Single Person
    3. 8.2 Arranging People Shots
    4. 8.3 Effective Shots
    5. 8.4 Selecting the Right Shot
    6. 8.5 Single-Camera Interviews
    7. 8.6 Editing Continuous Interviews
    8. 8.7 Shooting Groups
    9. 8.8 Car Interviews
    10. 8.9 Walking Interviews
      1. Shooting Instructional Productions
    11. 8.10 Typical Instructional Productions
    12. 8.11 Approaches to Instruction
    13. 8.12 Advance Planning
    14. 8.13 Creating the Instructional Program
    15. 8.14 Shooting Objects
      1. Interview: Sarah Leckie, Director/Videographer
  15. Chapter 9 Working with the Talent
    1. 9.1 Talent
    2. 9.2 Talent and Production Styles
    3. 9.3 The Interview: Go Beyond the Obvious
    4. 9.4 Selecting Talent
    5. 9.5 Inexperienced Talent
    6. 9.6 The Host
    7. 9.7 The Off-Camera Host
    8. 9.8 Presenting the Information
    9. 9.9 Importance of People in the Scene
    10. 9.10 Safety
      1. Interview: Kristin Ross Lauterbach, Director
  16. Chapter 10 Audio for Video
    1. 10.1 The Essential Component
    2. 10.2 The Nature of Sound
    3. 10.3 Acoustics
    4. 10.4 Mono Sound
    5. 10.5 Stereo Sound
    6. 10.6 Surround Sound
    7. 10.7 Microphone Care
    8. 10.8 Directional Features
    9. 10.9 Popular Types of Microphones
      1. Supporting The Microphone
    10. 10.10 Camera Microphones
    11. 10.11 The Handheld Microphone
    12. 10.12 The Shotgun Microphone
    13. 10.13 Using the Shotgun Microphone
    14. 10.14 The Shotgun and the Boom Pole (Fishpole)
    15. 10.15 Lavalier (Lapel or Clip-on Mic) Microphones
    16. 10.16 Boundary or PZM Microphone
    17. 10.17 Hanging Microphone
    18. 10.18 Surround Sound Microphone
    19. 10.19 Microphone Stands and Mounts
    20. 10.20 Wireless Microphone
    21. 10.21 Hidden Mics
      1. Controlling Dynamics
    22. 10.22 Dynamic Range
    23. 10.23 Automatic Gain Control (AGC) for Audio
    24. 10.24 Manual Control
    25. 10.25 Monitoring the Audio
    26. 10.26 The Audio Mixer
    27. 10.27 Using the Audio Mixer
    28. 10.28 Natural Sound
    29. 10.29 Anticipation
    30. 10.30 Anticipating Sound Editing
    31. 10.31 Filtered Sound
    32. 10.32 Reverberation
    33. 10.33 Program Music
    34. 10.34 Sound Effects
      1. Interview: Noel Dannemiller, Sound Mixer
  17. Chapter 11 Lighting for Video
    1. 11.1 Lighting the Scene
    2. 11.2 The Camera Does Not Compensate
    3. 11.3 The Key Factors
    4. 11.4 The Light’s Intensity
    5. 11.5 If There Is Not Enough Light
    6. 11.6 If There Is TooMuch Light
    7. 11.7 Hard Light Quality (Spotlight)
    8. 11.8 Soft Light Quality (Floodlight)
    9. 11.9 Lighting Contrast
    10. 11.10 Three-Point Lighting
    11. 11.11 Color Temperature Compensation
    12. 11.12 Using Colored Light
    13. 11.13 Shooting in Daylight
    14. 11.14 Using Reflectors
    15. 11.15 Bounce Light
    16. 11.16 Do We Really Need to Light it?
    17. 11.17 Lighting Options
    18. 11.18 Existing Light
      1. Lightweight Light Supports
    19. 11.19 Grip Clamps
    20. 11.20 Light Stands
      1. Lighting Instruments
    21. 11.21 Camera Light
    22. 11.22 Scoop
    23. 11.23 Broad
    24. 11.24 The Portable Soft Light
    25. 11.25 Multilamp Sources
    26. 11.26 Open Face Adjustable Light
    27. 11.27 Fresnel Spotlights
      1. Practical Lighting
    28. 11.28 The General Approach to Lighting
    29. 11.29 Using One Light
    30. 11.30 Using Multiple Lights
      1. Interview: Tommy Brown, Lighting
  18. Chapter 12 The Background
    1. 12.1 The Importance of the Background
    2. 12.2 The Impact of the Background
    3. 12.3 Real and Unreal Backgrounds
    4. 12.4 Set Components
    5. 12.5 Set Design for 16:9
    6. 12.6 The Neutral Background
    7. 12.7 Economical Sets
    8. 12.8 Semipermanent Sets
    9. 12.9 Chroma-Key
    10. 12.10 Virtual Sets
    11. 12.11 Outside/Back-Lot Sets
    12. 12.12 The Location
    13. 12.13 Watch the Background
    14. 12.14 Foreground Pieces
    15. 12.15 Versions of “Reality”
    16. 12.16 What Can We Do About the Background?
    17. 12.17 Rearranging the Background
    18. 12.18 Partial Settings
    19. 12.19 Typical Examples of Partial Settings
    20. 12.20 Facing Reality
      1. Interview: John DeCuir, Designer
  19. Chapter 13 Television Graphics
    1. 13.1 The Goals of Television Graphics
    2. 13.2 Types of Graphics
    3. 13.3 Designing Graphics
    4. 13.4 Animated Graphics
    5. 13.5 Backgrounds for Graphics
    6. 13.6 Graphics Equipment
      1. Interview: Lou Moore, Graphic Operator
  20. Chapter 14 Recording and Viewing the Video
    1. The Video Image
    2. 14.1 High-Definition Television (HDTV or HD)
    3. 14.2 Videotape
    4. 14.3 Analog and Digital
    5. 14.4 Tape Formats
    6. 14.5 Flash Memory
    7. 14.6 Hard Disk Drive (HDD) (Internal Hard Drive)
    8. 14.7 External Camera Hard Drives
    9. 14.8 Hard Drive Server Recorders
    10. 14.9 Recordable DVD
    11. 14.10 XDCAM Disk
    12. 14.11 Recording Media Care
    13. 14.12 Video Recording Suggestions
      1. Viewing The Video
    14. 14.13 How We See Color
    15. 14.14 How the Camera Sees Color
    16. 14.15 Monitors and Receivers
      1. Interview: Ryan Hammer, Atlast Digital
  21. Chapter 15 Editing
    1. 15.1 Editing Goals
    2. 15.2 Shooting Order Versus Running Order
    3. 15.3 Editing Video and Audio
    4. 15.4 Logging
    5. 15.5 An Overview of the Nonlinear Process
    6. 15.6 Editing Equipment
    7. 15.7 Organization
    8. 15.8 Editing Begins
    9. 15.9 Selecting Required Sections
    10. 15.10 The Order of Shots
    11. 15.11 Where Should the Edits Be Made?
      1. Special Effects
    12. 15.12 Transitions
    13. 15.13 Good Continuity
    14. 15.14 Editing Priorities
    15. 15.15 Good Editing Techniques
      1. Start Here
    16. 15.16 Anticipating Editing
      1. Interview: Brock Smith, Editor
  22. Chapter 16 Distributing Your Production
    1. 16.1 Traditional Broadcast Distribution
    2. 16.2 Traditional Non-Broadcast Distribution (Usually Referred to as Video)
    3. 16.3 Distributing Hard Copies of the Production
    4. 16.4 Online Distribution
    5. 16.5 Live Online Distribution
    6. 16.6 IPTV
    7. 16.7 Festivals and Competitions
      1. Interview: Chad Crouch: CEO, The Creative Group
  23. Glossary
  24. Index