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Video Production Handbook, 4th Edition

Book Description

Techniques matter! Great ideas don't automatically translate into great programs. It's not enough simply to show what is going on. The way you present your subject will influence how your audience responds. You need to choose your picture and sound carefully, to convey your ideas in an interesting, persuasive way. This book will show you how.

Video Production Handbook shows the full production process, from inception of idea to final distribution. The book focuses especially on why each step occurs as it does and provides guidance in choosing the simplest methods of creating the shots you want in your video project. Concentrating on the techniques and concepts behind the latest equipment, this book demonstrates the fundamental principles needed to create good video content on any kind of budget.

Suitable for students and beginning videographers, the new edition of this classic text retains its clarity and directness but has been completely revised and updated.


This practical sourcebook has been specially prepared to give you an at-a-glance guide to quality video program-making on a modest budget. Emphasis throughout is on excellence with economy; whether you are working alone or with a small multi-camera group. The well-tried techniques detailed here will steer you through the hazards of production, helping you to avoid those frustrating, time-wasting problems, and to create an effective video program.

For many years Video Production Handbook has helped students and program-makers in a wide range of organizations. Now in its thoroughly revised 4th edition, Video Production Handbook guides you step-by-step, explaining how to develop your initial program ideas and build them into a successful working format. It covers the techniques of persuasive camerawork, successful lighting and sound treatment, and video editing. You will find straightforward up-to-the-minute guidance with your daily production problems, and a wealth of practical tips based on the authors' personal experiences.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Full Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Introduction
  8. CHAPTER 1 Overview of Video Production
    1. 1.1 What is video production?
    2. FIRST STEP IN VIDEO PRODUCTION
      1. 1.2 The need for “know-how”
      2. 1.3 It’s designed for you
      3. 1.4 Learning basics
      4. 1.5 Remember the purpose
      5. 1.6 Equipment
      6. 1.7 What equipment is needed?
      7. 1.8 Is there a right way?
      8. 1.9 The production approach
    3. TECHNICALITIES
      1. 1.10 Equipment performance
  9. CHAPTER 2 Production Crew
    1. 2.1 Production crew size
    2. VIDEO PRODUCTION CREW JOB DESCRIPTIONS
      1. 2.2 Producer
      2. 2.3 Assistant producer or associate producer (AP)
      3. 2.4 Director
      4. 2.5 Assistant director or associate director (AD)
      5. 2.6 Floor manager (FM) or stage manager (SM)
      6. 2.7 Production assistant (PA)
      7. 2.8 Technical director (TD) or vision mixer
      8. 2.9 Makeup artist
      9. 2.10 Graphic designer/operator
      10. 2.11 Lighting director/vision supervisor
      11. 2.12 Camera operator
      12. 2.13 Camera assistant
      13. 2.14 Audio mixer/sound mixer/sound supervisor
      14. 2.15 Boom operator or audio assistant
      15. 2.16 Engineer
      16. 2.17 Writer
      17. 2.18 Editor
      18. 2.19 Set designer
    3. PROFESSIONAL CREW
      1. 2.20 Freelance crew
      2. 2.21 Below-the-line/above-the-line
      3. 2.22 The structure of a video production crew
  10. CHAPTER 3 Organizing the Production
    1. 3.1 Art conceals craft
    2. 3.2 Shot selection
    3. 3.3 The problem of familiarity
    4. 3.4 The problem of quality
    5. 3.5 The problem of “bigger and better”
    6. 3.6 Communication can be elusive
    7. 3.7 Start with an idea (concept)
    8. 3.8 Goals and objectives
    9. 3.9 Target audience
    10. 3.10 Research
    11. 3.11 Covering the subject
    12. 3.12 Production methods
    13. 3.13 The empirical approach
    14. 3.14 The planned approach
    15. 3.15 Storyboards
    16. 3.16 Why plan?
    17. 3.17 The three stages of production
    18. 3.18 Coverage
    19. 3.19 Building an outline
    20. 3.20 Broad treatment
    21. 3.21 Production research
    22. 3.22 Remote surveys (recce)
    23. 3.23 Freedom to plan
    24. 3.24 Single camera shooting
    25. 3.25 Multicamera shooting
    26. 3.26 Copyright
    27. 3.27 Contracts
  11. CHAPTER 4 Production Techniques
    1. 4.1 Single- and multicamera production
    2. 4.2 Multicamera ISO
    3. 4.3 Multicamera production without a switcher
    4. 4.4 The illusion of reality
    5. 4.5 The camera’s role
    6. 4.6 The camera as an observer
    7. 4.7 The persuasive camera
    8. 4.8 Beginning and ending
    9. 4.9 Production methods
    10. 4.10 How do you visualize something that does not exist?
  12. CHAPTER 5 Writing for Video
    1. 5.1 The script’s purpose
    2. 5.2 Is a script needed?
    3. 5.3 Basic script formats
    4. 5.4 The full script
    5. 5.5 The drama script
    6. 5.6 Suggestions on scriptwriting
    7. 5.7 Be visual
    8. 5.8 Assimilation
    9. 5.9 Relative pace
    10. 5.10 Style
  13. CHAPTER 6 The Camera
    1. 6.1 A range of models
    2. 6.2 Cameracraft
    3. CAMERA FEATURES
      1. 6.3 Main features
      2. 6.4 The lens system
      3. 6.5 Focal length and lens angle
      4. 6.6 The prime lens
      5. 6.7 The zoom lens
      6. 6.8 Zoom lens control
      7. 6.9 The aperture of the camera
      8. 6.10 Lens accessories
      9. 6.11 The image sensor
      10. 6.12 Sensitivity
      11. 6.13 The viewfi nder
      12. 6.14 Indicators
      13. 6.15 Audio
      14. 6.16 Power
    4. CONTROLLING THE CAMERA
      1. 6.17 Handling the camera
      2. 6.18 Supporting the camera
      3. 6.19 Handheld cameras
      4. 6.20 The monopod
      5. 6.21 The pan head (panning head or tripod head)
      6. 6.22 Using a tripod
      7. 6.23 The rolling tripod/tripod dolly
      8. 6.24 The pedestal
      9. 6.25 Jib arms
      10. 6.26 Specialty camera mounts
      11. 6.27 Handling care
  14. CHAPTER 7 Using the Camera
    1. 7.1 Just point and shoot
    2. 7.2 What gets on the screen?
    3. 7.3 How close should you get?
    4. 7.4 How much can we see?
    5. 7.5 Lens angles
    6. 7.6 So why move around?
    7. 7.7 The zooming process
    8. CONTROLLING THE ZOOM
      1. 7.8 Focusing
      2. 7.9 Auto-focus
      3. 7.10 Depth of fi eld
      4. 7.11 Maximum sharpness?
      5. 7.12 Diffi cult to focus?
      6. 7.13 Prefocusing the zoom lens
    9. EXPOSURE
      1. 7.14 What is “exposure”?
      2. 7.15 Underexposure and overexposure
      3. 7.16 Automatic exposure
      4. 7.17 Camera adjustments
      5. 7.18 Practical solutions
    10. HANDLING THE CAMERA
      1. 7.19 Panning and tilting
      2. 7.20 Following moving subjects
      3. 7.21 Framing movement
      4. 7.22 Walking
      5. 7.23 Shooting from vehicles
    11. THE BASICS OF SHOOTING
      1. 7.24 Practical conditions
      2. 7.25 Selecting the right shots
      3. 7.26 Persuasive shots
      4. 7.27 Guiding the viewer through the scene
      5. 7.28 Clutter
      6. 7.29 I can’t see it properly
    12. COMPOSING PICTURES
      1. 7.30 Composition rules and guidelines
      2. 7.31 The brief shot
      3. 7.32 “Dull” is in the mind
      4. 7.33 Shots that are different
      5. 7.34 Fitting the frame
      6. 7.35 Dividing the image into thirds
      7. 7.36 Shooting from different angles
      8. 7.37 Showing scale
      9. 7.38 Framing the subject
      10. 7.39 Leading lines
      11. 7.40 Headroom
      12. 7.41 Good balance
      13. 7.42 Juggling proportions
      14. 7.43 Grouping (unity)
      15. 7.44 Camera viewpoint
      16. 7.45 Distortions
    13. ANTICIPATING EDITING
      1. 7.46 Continuity
      2. 7.47 Improving editing fl exibility
      3. 7.48 What does a fi lter do?
      4. 7.49 Crossing the line
  15. CHAPTER 8 Shooting People and Objects
    1. SHOOTING PEOPLE
      1. 8.1 The single person
      2. 8.2 Arranging people shots
      3. 8.3 Effective shots
      4. 8.4 Selecting the right shot
      5. 8.5 Single-camera interviews
      6. 8.6 Editing continuous interviews
      7. 8.7 Shooting groups
      8. 8.8 Car interviews
      9. 8.9 Walking interviews
    2. SHOOTING INSTRUCTIONAL PRODUCTIONS
      1. 8.10 Typical instructional productions
      2. 8.11 Approaches to instruction
      3. 8.12 Advance planning
      4. 8.13 Creating the instructional program
      5. 8.14 Shooting objects
  16. CHAPTER 9 Working with the Talent
    1. 9.1 Talent
    2. 9.2 Talent and production styles
    3. 9.3 The interview: go beyond the obvious
    4. 9.4 Selecting talent
    5. 9.5 Inexperienced talent
    6. 9.6 The host
    7. 9.7 When there are problems
    8. 9.8 Presenting the information
    9. 9.9 Importance of people in the scene
  17. CHAPTER 10 Audio for Video
    1. 10.1 The essential component
    2. 10.2 The nature of sound
    3. 10.3 Acoustics
    4. 10.4 Mono sound
    5. 10.5 Stereo sound
    6. 10.6 Surround sound
    7. 10.7 Microphone care
    8. 10.8 Directional features
    9. 10.9 Popular types of microphone
    10. SUPPORTING THE MICROPHONE
      1. 10.10 Camera microphones
      2. 10.11 The handheld microphone
      3. 10.12 The shotgun microphone
      4. 10.13 Using the shotgun microphone
      5. 10.14 The shotgun and the boom pole (fishpole)
      6. 10.15 Lavalier (lapel or clip-on mic) microphones
      7. 10.16 Boundary or PZM microphone
      8. 10.17 Hanging microphone
      9. 10.18 Surround sound microphone
      10. 10.19 Microphone stands and mounts
      11. 10.20 Wireless microphone
      12. 10.21 Hidden mics
    11. CONTROLLING DYNAMICS
      1. 10.22 Dynamic range
      2. 10.23 Automatic control for audio
      3. 10.24 Manual control
      4. 10.25 Monitoring the audio
      5. 10.26 The audio mixer
      6. 10.27 Using the audio mixer
      7. 10.28 Natural sound
      8. 10.29 Anticipation
      9. 10.30 Anticipating sound editing
      10. 10.31 Filtered sound
      11. 10.32 Reverberation
      12. 10.33 Program music
      13. 10.34 Sound effects
  18. CHAPTER 11 Lighting for Video
    1. 11.1 Lighting for everyone
    2. 11.2 The camera does not compensate
    3. 11.3 The key factors
    4. 11.4 The light’s intensity
    5. 11.5 If there is not enough light
    6. 11.6 If there is too much light
    7. 11.7 Hard light quality
    8. 11.8 Soft light quality
    9. 11.9 Lighting contrast
    10. 11.10 Three-point lighting
    11. 11.11 Color temperature compensation
    12. 11.12 Using colored light
    13. 11.13 Shooting in daylight
    14. 11.14 Using refl ectors
    15. 11.15 Bounce light
    16. 11.16 Do we really need to light it?
    17. 11.17 Lighting options
    18. 11.18 Existing light
    19. LIGHTWEIGHT LIGHT SUPPORTS
      1. 11.19 Grip clamps
      2. 11.20 Light stands
    20. LIGHTING INSTRUMENTS
      1. 11.21 Camera light
      2. 11.22 Scoop
      3. 11.23 Broad
      4. 11.24 The portable soft light
      5. 11.25 Multilamp sources
      6. 11.26 Open face adjustable light
      7. 11.27 Fresnel spotlights
    21. PRACTICAL LIGHTING
      1. 11.28 The general approach to lighting
      2. 11.29 Using one light
      3. 11.30 Using multiple lights
  19. CHAPTER 12 The Background
    1. 12.1 The importance of the background
    2. 12.2 The impact of the background
    3. 12.3 Real and unreal backgrounds
    4. 12.4 Set design for 16:9
    5. 12.5 The neutral background
    6. 12.6 Economical sets
    7. 12.7 Semipermanent sets
    8. 12.8 Chroma-key/matting
    9. 12.9 Virtual sets
    10. 12.10 Outside/back-lot sets
    11. 12.11 The location as a background
    12. 12.12 Watch the background
    13. 12.13 Camera height
    14. 12.14 Foreground pieces
    15. 12.15 Creating depth
    16. 12.16 Versions of “reality”
    17. 12.17 What can we do about the background?
    18. 12.18 Rearranging the background
    19. 12.19 Altering the background
    20. 12.20 Partial settings
    21. 12.21 Typical examples of partial settings
    22. 12.22 Facing reality
  20. CHAPTER 13 Television Graphics
    1. 13.1 The goals of television graphics
    2. 13.2 Types of graphics
    3. 13.3 Designing graphics
    4. 13.4 Backgrounds for graphics
    5. 13.5 Graphics equipment
  21. CHAPTER 14 Recording and Viewing the Video
    1. RECORDING THE VIDEO
      1. 14.1 High-defi nition television (HDTV or HD)
      2. 14.2 Videotape
      3. 14.3 Analog and digital
      4. 14.4 Tape formats
      5. 14.5 Flash memory
      6. 14.6 Hard disk drive (HDD) (internal hard drive)
      7. 14.7 External camera hard drives
      8. 14.8 Hard drive server recorders
      9. 14.9 Recordable DVD
      10. 14.10 XD cam disk
      11. 14.11 Recording media care
      12. 14.12 Video recording suggestions
    2. VIEWING THE VIDEO
      1. 14.13 How we see color
      2. 14.14 How the camera sees color
      3. 14.15 Monitors and receivers
  22. CHAPTER 15 Editing
    1. 15.1 Editing goals
    2. 15.2 Shooting order versus running order
    3. 15.3 Editing video and audio
    4. 15.4 Logging
    5. 15.5 An overview of the nonlinear process
    6. 15.6 Editing equipment
    7. 15.7 Organization
    8. 15.8 Editing begins
    9. 15.9 Selecting required sections
    10. 15.10 The order of shots
    11. 15.11 Where should the edits be made?
    12. 15.12 Transitions
    13. 15.13 Good continuity
    14. 15.14 Editing priorities
    15. 15.15 Good editing techniques
    16. 15.16 Anticipating editing
  23. Glossary
  24. Index