You are previewing UX Research.
O'Reilly logo
UX Research

Book Description

One key responsibility of product designers and UX practitioners is to conduct formal and informal research to clarify design decisions and business needs. But there’s often mystery around product research, with the feeling that you need to be a research Zen master to gather anything useful. Fact is, anyone can conduct product research. With this quick reference guide, you’ll learn a common language and set of tools to help you carry out research in an informed and productive manner.

Table of Contents

  1. Special Upgrade Offer
  2. Praise for UX Research
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
    1. Assumptions This Book Makes
    2. Contents of This Book
    3. O’Reilly Safari
    4. How to Contact Us
    5. Acknowledgments
      1. From Brad
      2. From David
      3. From Us Both
  5. I. Introduction
    1. 1. The History of Research
      1. Research in Manufacturing
        1. Industrial Engineering
        2. Automobiles
      2. Human Factors
        1. The Golden Triangle
      3. Analytics and Lab Coats
        1. GOMS
          1. GOMS defined
          2. GOMS in practice: Keystroke-Level Modeling
      4. Computers, the Web, and Today
      5. Field Research Takes Root
        1. The Backgrounds That Led to UX Research
      6. Parting Thoughts
  6. II. Planning and Preparation
    1. 2. Good Research Starts with Good Questions
      1. Why Are Good Questions So Hard?
        1. The Role of Questions in Research
        2. How Good Questions Go Wrong
          1. Leading questions
          2. Shallow questions
          3. Personal bias
          4. Unconscious bias
        3. Knowing When to Break the Rules
        4. Years of Practice and Failure to Master
      2. The Basic Structure of a Question
        1. The Setup
        2. Area of Inquiry
        3. Laddering
        4. Segue to Next Question
      3. Writing Your Questions
        1. Relate Back to Research Goals
        2. Open Up Additional Areas of Discussion
        3. Progress the Overall Conversation
      4. How to Use Different Types of Questions
        1. Process
        2. Explanation
        3. Description
        4. Time Based
        5. Frustrations/Hurdles
        6. Ideals/Dreams
      5. How to Practice Asking Questions
        1. Coworkers and Dry Runs
      6. Exercise: Brainstorming Questions
      7. Parting Thoughts
    2. 3. Quantitative Research Methods
      1. Quantitative Research by the Numbers
        1. Where Do I Find Quantitative Research?
        2. What Quantitative Research Is Not
      2. Three Focuses of Research
        1. Insight-Driven
        2. Evaluative
        3. Generative
      3. Types of Research Methods
        1. System Analytics
        2. Surveys
        3. Tree Jacking
        4. Eye Tracking
        5. A/B Testing
        6. Card Sorting
        7. Additional Methods
      4. Quantitative Methods: When and Where
      5. Quantitative Methods: When to Avoid
      6. Exercise: Getting to Know Quantitative Research
      7. Parting Thoughts
    3. 4. Qualitative Research Methods
      1. Qualitative Research: Can You Feel It?
        1. Where Do I Find Qualitative Research?
        2. What Qualitative Research Is Not
      2. Three Focuses of Research, Revisited
        1. Initial Planning
          1. Landscape analysis
          2. Heuristic reviews
        2. Discovery and Exploration
          1. Contextual inquiry
        3. Product Testing and Validation
          1. Moderated product validation
          2. Unmoderated product validation
        4. Participatory Design
        5. Additional Methods
      3. Qualitative Methods: When and Where
      4. Qualitative Methods: When to Avoid
      5. Qualitative and Quantitative: A Match Made in Heaven
        1. Data-Driven Personas
        2. Data-Driven Customer Journeys
        3. Data-Driven Design
      6. Exercise: Getting the Feel for Qualitative Research
      7. Parting Thoughts
    4. 5. Choosing Your Methods
      1. Quantitative and Qualitative: How to Choose
        1. What Are Your Questions?
        2. Stakeholder Needs
        3. Sample Size
        4. Sample Location
        5. Budget
        6. Timeline
      2. Mixing and Matching Methods
        1. What Works Well
        2. What Doesn’t Work Well
      3. Exercise: Choosing an Effective Method
      4. Parting Thoughts
    5. 6. Logistics
      1. Planning Session Logistics
        1. Session Prep
          1. Session setup
          2. Paperwork review
          3. Participant familiarization
          4. Tech check
          5. Observer orientation
          6. Supplies list
        2. Session Cleanup
          1. Resetting yourself
        3. Travel Considerations
          1. Lunch
          2. Traffic
        4. Remote Challenges
          1. Training participants
      2. Supporting Documentation
        1. Welcome Kit
          1. What and why
          2. Team members
          3. Points of contact
          4. Logistics
        2. Research Goals
          1. What will be learned?
          2. Why do you need to learn it?
          3. What’s your hypothesis?
        3. Discussion Guide
          1. Opening script
          2. Screener recap
          3. Research questions
        4. Consent Forms
          1. Nondisclosure agreements
          2. Permission to record
          3. Permission to quote
      3. Honorarium
        1. Cash
        2. Gift cards
        3. Free product
        4. Receipts
      4. Parting Thoughts
    6. 7. Recruiting
      1. Participant Identification
        1. Past Qualitative Research
        2. Current Analytic Reports
        3. Customer Segments
        4. User Profiles
          1. Breaking down profiles
          2. Identifying key behaviors
      2. Recruitment Screener
        1. What Screeners Look Like
        2. Basic Demographics
        3. Behavioral Demographics
        4. Quotas
      3. Recruitment Methods
        1. Internal Versus Public Recruiting
        2. Self-Recruiting
          1. Cold calling
          2. In-person intercepts
        3. Outsourcing Recruiting
          1. Third-party recruiting
          2. Client-based recruiting
        4. Scheduling
        5. Backups
          1. No shows
          2. Duds
      4. Recruitment Challenges
        1. I Don’t Have Users...Yet
        2. Small Target Audience
        3. Common Lies We Tell Ourselves
          1. Everyone is a user
          2. Everything is a secret
      5. Exercise: Priming Your Screener
      6. Parting Thoughts
  7. III. Facilitating Research
    1. 8. Making Research Happen
      1. Rules of Engagement
        1. Defining Your Roles
          1. Moderator and note taker
          2. Teacher and student
        2. Observing Research
          1. Observer role
          2. Ground rules
      2. Dry Runs
        1. Practice Makes Perfect
        2. Embrace Change
      3. Session Flow and Facilitating
        1. Address the Formalities First
          1. Consent forms
          2. Honorariums
        2. Start Slow
        3. Build to Complexity
          1. Main tasks
          2. Failure is okay
        4. Coffee Talk: Time for Discussion
          1. Observers’ input
          2. Participants’ input
        5. Ending a Session
      4. Exercise: Meeting Prep
      5. Parting Thoughts
    2. 9. Managing People During Research
      1. Host and Guest Norms
        1. Dress Appropriately for Office Visits
        2. Be a Gracious Guest During Home Visits
        3. Respect Participants’ Personal Space
          1. Don’t arrive too early
          2. Leave no trace behind
        4. Follow Screen-Sharing Best Practices
      2. Cultural Considerations
        1. Set the Right Tone
        2. Know When to Call “Scene”
      3. Small Talk Matters
        1. Priming Questions
        2. Taking Notes
          1. Pen and paper
          2. Digital notes
        3. Warming Up
      4. Exercises: Making Small Talk
        1. Office Small Talk
        2. Coffee Talk
      5. Parting Thoughts
    3. 10. Improv in Research
      1. What Is Improv?
        1. Improv for the Masses
      2. Rules of Improv
        1. Everything Is True
          1. “Yes, And...”
        2. Stop Trying to Be Funny
          1. Five-Word Warm-Up
        3. Failure Is OK
          1. Only Questions
        4. Listen to the Scene
          1. Dinner Party
        5. Support Your Players
          1. Evil Twin
        6. Location, Location, Location
          1. Bodystorming
        7. Raise the Stakes
          1. I’d Rather Not
        8. Yield to the Strongest Offer
          1. Slide Show
        9. You Are Not the Star
          1. Sit-Stand-Lean
        10. Remember Everything
          1. Count to 100
      3. Practical Uses of Improv
        1. Improv in Design
          1. Sales
          2. Presentations
          3. Idea generation
          4. Workshops
        2. Improv in Research
          1. Buggy technology
          2. Dud participants
          3. Discussion guide challenges
      4. Exercise: Simplifying Through Improv
      5. Parting Thoughts
    4. 11. Facilitating Research
      1. Soft Skills Are Hard
        1. What Are Soft Skills?
        2. Why Soft Skills Matter
        3. Soft Skills Can Be Learned
        4. Mastery Through Practice
      2. Body Language
        1. What Is Body Language?
        2. Why Body Language Matters
        3. How to Use Body Language
          1. Participants’ body language
          2. Your body language
          3. Mirroring
        4. Key Body Signals
      3. Microexpressions
        1. Why Microexpressions Matter
        2. How to Use Microexpressions
        3. Key Expressions
      4. Cultural Implications
        1. Do Your Homework
        2. Come from a Place of Respect
      5. Exercise: Reading Nonverbal Communication
        1. Mimicry
        2. Observation
        3. Inquiry
      6. Parting Thoughts
    5. 12. Debrief Sessions
      1. What Are Debrief Sessions?
        1. Planned Debrief Sessions
        2. Ad Hoc Debrief Sessions
      2. Why Debrief?
        1. Validate Goals
        2. Keep the Home Office Informed
          1. Moderated research initiatives
          2. Remote research implications
          3. Quantitative research implications
          4. Keep clients informed
          5. Keep the team informed
        3. Track Highlights in Real Time
          1. Spreadsheets
          2. Affinity diagrams
          3. Digital affinity diagrams
          4. Highlight reel
      3. Debrief Informs Iteration
        1. Research in the Open
        2. Mitigate Risk
      4. Exercise: Discussing Observations
      5. Parting Thoughts
  8. IV. Analysis and Reporting
    1. 13. Making Sense of the Mess
      1. Why Bother with Analysis?
        1. Manufacturing and Engineering
        2. Game Design
      2. Analysis in Product Design
        1. What Is a Data Point?
          1. Quantitative data points
          2. Qualitative data points
        2. Using Data Points
          1. How to code
          2. Dealing with repeats
          3. Assigning multiple homes
          4. Different points of view
          5. When data points disagree
        3. Measuring Data Points
        4. Setting Aside Time
      3. Methods of Analysis
        1. Affinity Diagrams
        2. Quadrant Mapping
        3. Frequency Mapping
        4. Spectrum Analysis
      4. Insights Inform the Design Process
        1. Design
        2. Strategy
        3. Communicating Insights
      5. Exercise: Performing a Candyland Analysis
      6. Parting Thoughts
    2. 14. Communicating Insights
      1. Modes of Presenting
        1. Executive Summary
        2. Full Report
        3. Video and Audio
        4. Participant Quotes
        5. Research Artifacts and Diagrams
          1. Experience maps
          2. Personas
          3. Mind maps
          4. User flows
          5. Swim lanes
          6. Mental models
          7. Severity scales
          8. Click maps
          9. Actionable recommendations
          10. Change logs
          11. Design specifications
      2. Importance of Different Modes
        1. Reporting
        2. Making the ROI Case
        3. Using Different Forms of Storytelling
      3. Using the Artifacts
        1. Team Use
          1. Capture immediate value with actionable tasks
          2. Project long-term value with product roadmaps
        2. Stakeholder Use
          1. Include stakeholder observations
          2. Integrate stakeholder interests and opinions
          3. Remove yourself
      4. Exercise: Structuring the Research Report
      5. Parting Thoughts
    3. 15. Getting the Most Out of Research
      1. Research Starts with Questions
        1. What Do We Think We Know?
        2. What Do We Want to Know?
      2. Research Is Ongoing
        1. Plan Your Next Efforts
        2. Dive Deeper
        3. Research Is Integrated
          1. Product development
          2. Product roadmap
          3. Business strategy
          4. Team culture
        4. Research Is a Lifestyle
          1. Increasing nimbleness
      3. Parting Thoughts
  9. Index
  10. A. About the Authors
  11. B. O’Reilly<sup xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:pls="http://www.w3.org/2005/01/pronunciation-lexicon" xmlns:ssml="http://www.w3.org/2001/10/synthesis" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">&#174;</sup>: UX Research: UX Research
  12. About the Authors
  13. Special Upgrade Offer
  14. Copyright