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Upgrading and Repairing PCs, 22nd Edition

Book Description

Access to 3 hours of troubleshooting videos as well as PDFs of previous editions are available through product registration—see instructions in back pages of your eBook. 

For more than 25 years, Upgrading and Repairing PCs has been the world’s #1 guide to PC hardware: The single source for reliable information on how PCs work, troubleshooting and fixing problems, adding hardware, optimizing performance, and building new PCs. This 22nd edition offers beefed-up coverage of the newest hardware innovations and maintenance techniques, plus more than two hours of new video.

Scott Mueller delivers practical answers about PC processors, mother-boards, buses, BIOSes, memory, SSD and HDD storage, video, audio, networks, Internet connectivity, power, and much more. You’ll find the industry’s best coverage of diagnostics, testing, and repair—plus cutting-edge discussions of improving PC performance via overclocking and other techniques.

Mueller has taught thousands of professionals in person and millions more through his books and videos—nobody knows more about keeping PCs running perfectly. Whether you’re a professional technician, a small business owner trying to save money, or a home PC enthusiast, this is the only PC hardware book you need!

NEW IN THIS EDITION

  • The newest processors, including Intel’s latest Core i Haswell processors and AMD’s Kaveri core processors.

  • Everything you need to know about the latest GPU technology from NVIDIA and AMD, including developments in OpenGL, DirectX, and Mantle.

  • New firmware innovations like the InSyde BIOS, Back to BIOS buttons, and all the updated settings available for the newest processors and chipsets.

  • The latest in updated home networking standards, from blazing fast 802.11ac Wi-Fi to HomeGrid and G.hn powerline networking.

  • Ever larger storage, thanks to new technologies like helium-filled hard disks, shingled magnetic recording, and Cfast and XQD for flash memory.

  • Emerging interfaces such as mSATA, USB 3.1, and M.2

  • Updated coverage of building PCs from scratch—from choosing and assembling hardware through BIOS setup and troubleshooting

  • Table of Contents

    1. About This eBook
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. Contents at a Glance
    5. Contents
    6. Accessing the Online Media Included with this Book
    7. About the Authors
    8. We Want to Hear from You!
    9. Reader Services
    10. Introduction
      1. Book Objectives
      2. The 22nd Edition Online Content
      3. My Online Forum
      4. A Personal Note
    11. Chapter 1. Development of the PC
      1. Computer History: Before Personal Computers
        1. Timeline
        2. Electronic Computers
      2. Modern Computers
        1. From Tubes to Transistors
        2. Integrated Circuits
      3. History of the PC
        1. Birth of the Personal Computer
        2. The IBM Personal Computer
        3. The PC Industry 34 Years Later
    12. Chapter 2. PC Components, Features, and System Design
      1. What Is a PC?
        1. Who Controls PC Software?
        2. Who Controls PC Hardware?
        3. White-Box Systems
      2. System Types
      3. System Components
    13. Chapter 3. Processor Types and Specifications
      1. Microprocessor History
        1. The First Microprocessor
        2. PC Processor Evolution
        3. 16-Bit to 64-Bit Architecture Evolution
      2. Processor Specifications
        1. Data I/O Bus
        2. Address Bus
        3. Internal Registers (Internal Data Bus)
        4. Processor Modes
        5. Processor Benchmarks
        6. Comparing Processor Performance
        7. Cache Memory
      3. Processor Features
        1. System Management Mode
        2. Superscalar Execution
        3. MMX Technology
        4. Dynamic Execution
        5. Dual Independent Bus Architecture
        6. HT Technology (Hyperthreading)
        7. Multicore Technology
        8. Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Support
      4. Processor Manufacturing
        1. PGA Chip Packaging
        2. Single Edge Contact and Single Edge Processor Packaging
      5. Processor Socket and Slot Types
        1. Socket LGA775
        2. Socket LGA1156
        3. Socket LGA1366
        4. Socket LGA1155
        5. Socket LGA2011
        6. Socket LGA1150
        7. Socket AM2/AM2+/AM3/AM3+
        8. Socket F (1207FX)
        9. Socket FM1
        10. Socket FM2
        11. Socket FM2+
        12. Socket AM1 (Socket FS1B)
      6. CPU Operating Voltages
      7. Math Coprocessors (Floating-Point Units)
      8. Processor Bugs and Steppings
      9. Processor Code Names
      10. P1 (086) Processors
      11. P2 (286) Processors
      12. P3 (386) Processors
      13. P4 (486) Processors
      14. P5 (586) Processors
        1. AMD-K5
      15. Intel P6 (686) Processors
        1. Pentium Pro Processors
        2. Pentium II Processors
        3. Pentium III
        4. Celeron
      16. Intel Pentium 4 and Extreme Edition Processors
        1. Intel Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition
      17. Intel Core Processors
        1. Intel Core 2 Family
        2. Intel (Nehalem) Core i Processors
      18. AMD K6 Processors
      19. AMD K7 Processors
        1. AMD Athlon
        2. AMD Duron
        3. AMD Athlon XP
        4. Athlon MP
      20. AMD K8 Processors
        1. AMD Athlon 64 and 64 FX
        2. AMD Sempron
        3. AMD Athlon X2, 64 X2, and 64 FX
      21. AMD K10 Processors (Phenom, Phenom II, Athlon II, Athlon X2, Sempron)
      22. AMD Bulldozer, Piledriver, Steamroller, and Excavator FX Processors
      23. AMD Fusion/HSA APUs
      24. Processor Upgrades
      25. Overclocking
        1. Quartz Crystals
        2. Modern PC Clocks
        3. Overclocking Tips
        4. Unlocking Cores
        5. Bus Speeds and Multipliers
      26. Processor Cooling
        1. Heatsinks
        2. Liquid Cooling
        3. Thermally Advantaged Chassis
      27. Processor Troubleshooting Techniques
    14. Chapter 4. Motherboards and Buses
      1. Motherboard Form Factors
        1. Obsolete Form Factors
        2. ATX and Other Modern Form Factors
      2. Processor Sockets/Slots
      3. Chipsets
        1. Chipset Evolution
        2. Intel Chipsets
        3. Intel Chipset Model Numbers
        4. Intel Integrated Graphics Architecture
        5. AMD Integrated Graphics Architecture
        6. Traditional North/Southbridge Architecture
        7. Hub Architecture
        8. HyperTransport and Other Processor/Chipset Interconnects
      4. Intel’s Early 386/486 Chipsets
      5. Fifth-Generation (P5 Pentium Class) Chipsets
      6. Sixth-Generation (P6 Pentium Pro/II/III Class) Chipsets
      7. Seventh/Eighth-Generation (Pentium 4/D, Core 2, and Core i) Chipsets
        1. Intel 915 Family
        2. Intel 925X Family
        3. Intel 945 Express Family
        4. Intel 955X and 975X Family
        5. Intel 96x Series
        6. Intel 3x and 4x Series Chipsets
        7. Intel 5x Series Chipsets
        8. Intel 6x Series Chipsets
        9. Intel 7x Series Chipsets
        10. Intel 8x Series Chipsets
        11. Intel 9x Series Chipsets
      8. Third-Party Chipsets for Intel Processors
        1. SiS Chipsets
        2. ULi Electronics Chipsets
        3. ATI Chipsets
        4. VIA Chipsets
        5. NVIDIA Chipsets for Intel Processors
      9. Chipsets for AMD Processors
      10. AMD Athlon Chipsets
      11. AMD Athlon 64 Chipsets
        1. AMD 8000 (8151) Chipset
        2. AMD (Formerly ATI) Chipsets for Athlon 64, Sempron, Phenom
        3. Third-Party Chipsets for AMD Processors
        4. VIA Chipsets
        5. SiS Chipsets
        6. NVIDIA Chipsets
      12. Super I/O Chips
      13. Motherboard Connectors
      14. System Bus Types, Functions, and Features
        1. The Processor Bus (FSB)
      15. Types of I/O Buses
        1. The ISA Bus
        2. The Micro Channel Bus
        3. The EISA Bus
        4. Local Buses (VESA, PCI, PCI Express, AGP)
      16. System Resources
        1. Interrupts
        2. DMA Channels
        3. I/O Port Addresses
      17. Motherboard Selection Criteria (Knowing What to Look For)
        1. Chipset Documentation
    15. Chapter 5. BIOS
      1. BIOS Basics
      2. Motherboard ROM BIOS
        1. ROM Hardware
        2. ROM Shadowing
        3. ROM Chip Types
        4. ROM BIOS Manufacturers
        5. BIOS Hardware/Software
      3. Upgrading the BIOS
        1. Where to Get Your BIOS Update
        2. Determining Your BIOS Version
        3. Backing Up Your BIOS
        4. Backing Up Your BIOS Setup (CMOS RAM) Settings
        5. Upgrading a Flash BIOS
        6. Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses
      4. Preboot Environment
      5. Unified Extensible Firmware Interface
        1. UEFI and BIOS Limitations
        2. UEFI Support
      6. BIOS Setup
        1. Running or Accessing the BIOS Setup Program
        2. BIOS Setup Menus
        3. Maintenance Menu
        4. Main Menu
        5. Exit Menu
        6. AMD-Specific BIOS Settings
      7. PnP BIOS
        1. PnP Device IDs
        2. ACPI
      8. BIOS/MBR Error Messages
        1. BIOS Boot Error Messages
        2. MBR Boot Error Messages
    16. Chapter 6. Memory
      1. Memory Basics
        1. ROM
        2. DRAM
        3. Cache Memory: SRAM
      2. Memory Standards
      3. Speed and Performance
        1. Fast Page Mode DRAM
        2. Extended Data Out RAM
        3. SDRAM
        4. DDR SDRAM
        5. DDR2 SDRAM
        6. DDR3 SDRAM
        7. DDR4 SDRAM
        8. RDRAM
      4. Memory Modules
        1. Registered Modules
        2. SDR DIMM Details
        3. DDR DIMM Details
        4. DDR2 DIMM Details
        5. DDR3 DIMM Details
        6. DDR4 DIMM Details
      5. Determining a Memory Module’s Size and Features
      6. Memory Banks
      7. Memory Module Speed
      8. Parity and ECC
        1. Parity Checking
        2. How Parity Checking Works
        3. ECC
      9. RAM Upgrades
        1. Upgrade Options and Strategies
        2. Purchasing Memory
        3. Replacing Modules with Higher-Capacity Versions
        4. Installing Memory Modules
      10. Troubleshooting Memory
      11. Memory Defect Isolation Procedures
      12. The System Logical Memory Layout
    17. Chapter 7. The ATA/IDE Interface
      1. An Overview of the IDE Interface
        1. Precursors to IDE
        2. IDE Origins
        3. Origins of ATA
      2. ATA Standards
        1. ATA-1 (ATA Interface for Disk Drives)
        2. ATA-2 (ATA Interface with Extensions-2)
        3. ATA-3 (ATA Interface-3)
        4. ATA/ATAPI-4 (ATA with Packet Interface Extension-4)
        5. ATA/ATAPI-5 (ATA with Packet Interface-5)
        6. ATA/ATAPI-6 (ATA with Packet Interface-6)
        7. ATA/ATAPI-7 (ATA with Packet Interface-7)
        8. ATA/ATAPI-8
      3. PATA
        1. PATA I/O Connector
        2. PATA I/O Cable
        3. Longer or Rounded Cables
        4. PATA Signals
        5. PATA Dual-Drive Configurations
        6. PATA PIO Transfer Modes
        7. PATA DMA Transfer Modes
      4. SATA
        1. SATA Standards and Performance
        2. SATA Express
        3. SATA Cables and Connectors
        4. eSATA
        5. SATA Configuration
        6. Advanced Host Controller Interface
        7. Non-Volatile Memory Express
        8. SATA Transfer Modes
      5. ATA Features
        1. ATA Commands
        2. ATA Security Mode
        3. Host Protected Area
        4. ATAPI
      6. ATA Drive Capacity Limitations
        1. Prefixes for Decimal and Binary Multiples
        2. BIOS Limitations
        3. CHS Versus LBA
        4. CHS/LBA and LBA/CHS Conversions
        5. BIOS Commands Versus ATA Commands
        6. CHS Limitations (the 528MB Barrier)
        7. CHS Translation (Breaking the 528MB Barrier)
        8. The 2.1GB and 4.2GB Barriers
        9. LBA-Assist Translation
        10. The 8.4GB Barrier
        11. The 137GB Barrier and Beyond
        12. Operating System and Other Software Limitations
      7. GPT and the 2.2TB Barrier
      8. PATA/SATA RAID
        1. Software RAID
    18. Chapter 8. Magnetic Storage
      1. Magnetic Storage
      2. History of Magnetic Storage
      3. How Magnetic Fields Are Used to Store Data
      4. Read/Write Head Designs
        1. Ferrite
        2. Metal-In-Gap
        3. Thin-Film
        4. Magneto-Resistive Heads
        5. Giant Magneto-Resistive Heads
      5. Head Sliders
      6. Data-Encoding Schemes
        1. Frequency Modulation Encoding
        2. Modified FM Encoding
        3. Run Length Limited Encoding
        4. Encoding Scheme Comparisons
        5. Partial-Response, Maximum-Likelihood Decoders
      7. Capacity Measurements
      8. Areal Density
        1. Perpendicular Magnetic Recording
        2. Helium-Filled Drives
        3. Shingled Magnetic Recording
      9. Definition of a Hard Disk
      10. Hard Drive Advancements
      11. Form Factors
        1. 5 1/4-Inch Drive
        2. 3 1/2-Inch Drive
        3. 2 1/2-Inch Drive
        4. 1.8-Inch Drive
        5. 1-Inch Drives
      12. HDD Operation
        1. Data Recovery Options
        2. The Ultimate HDD Analogy
        3. Tracks and Sectors
        4. ECC
        5. Disk Formatting
      13. Basic HDD Components
        1. Hard Disk Platters (Disks)
        2. Recording Media
        3. Read/Write Heads
        4. Head Actuator Mechanisms
        5. Air Filters
        6. Hard Disk Temperature Acclimation
        7. Spindle Motors
        8. Logic Boards
        9. Cables and Connectors
        10. Configuration Items
      14. Hard Disk Features
        1. Capacity
        2. Performance
        3. Reliability
    19. Chapter 9. Flash and Removable Storage
      1. Alternative Storage Devices
      2. Flash Memory Devices
        1. CompactFlash, XQD, and CFast
        2. SmartMedia
        3. MultiMediaCard
        4. SecureDigital
        5. Sony Memory Stick
        6. ATA Flash PC Card
        7. xD-Picture Card
      3. Solid-State Drives
        1. Virtual SSD (RAMdisk)
        2. Flash-Based SSDs
      4. USB Flash Drives
        1. Comparing Flash Memory Devices
        2. SD Cards Speed Class and UHS Speed Class Markings
        3. File Systems Used by Flash Memory
        4. Flash Card Readers
        5. Card Readers
        6. ReadyBoost Support
      5. Cloud-Based Storage
      6. Floppy Disk Drives
      7. Tape Drives
    20. Chapter 10. Optical Storage
      1. Optical Technology
      2. CD-Based Optical Technology
        1. CDs: A Brief History
        2. CD Construction and Technology
        3. Mass-Producing CDs
        4. Writable CDs
        5. MultiRead Specifications
        6. MultiPlay and MultiAudio
      3. DVD
        1. DVD History
        2. DVD Construction and Technology
        3. DVD Tracks and Sectors
        4. Handling DVD Errors
        5. DVD Capacity (Sides and Layers)
        6. Data Encoding on the DVD Disc
        7. Recordable DVD Standards
        8. Multiformat Rewritable DVD Drives
      4. BD
      5. HD-DVD
      6. Optical Disc Formats
        1. CD Formats
        2. DVD Formats and Standards
        3. Optical Disc File Systems
      7. Ripping/Copying Discs
        1. “For Music Use Only” CD-R/RW Discs
        2. CD Copy Protection
        3. CD Digital Rights Management
        4. DVD and Blu-ray Copy Protection
      8. Optical Drive Performance Specifications
        1. CD Data Transfer Rate
        2. CD Drive Speed
        3. DVD Drive Speed
        4. BD Drive Speed
        5. Access Time
        6. Buffer/Cache
        7. Direct Memory Access and Ultra-DMA
        8. Interface
        9. Loading Mechanism
        10. Other Drive Features
      9. How to Reliably Record Optical Discs
        1. Bootable Optical Discs—El Torito
        2. LightScribe and LabelFlash
      10. Troubleshooting Optical Drives
        1. Caring for Optical Media
        2. Updating the Firmware in an Optical Drive
    21. Chapter 11. Video Hardware
      1. Display Adapters and Monitors
      2. Video Display Adapters
        1. Video Adapter Types
        2. Integrated Video/Motherboard Chipsets
        3. CPUs with Integrated Video
        4. Intel Processors with Integrated Graphics
        5. AMD Desktop APUs
        6. Video Adapter Components
        7. Identifying the Video and System Chipsets
        8. Video RAM
        9. The DAC
      3. Video Display Interfaces
        1. The System Interface
        2. The Display Interface
        3. TV Display Interfaces
      4. 3D Graphics Accelerators
        1. How 3D Accelerators Work
        2. APIs
        3. Dual-GPU Scene Rendering
      5. Monitors
        1. Display Specifications
        2. LCD and LED Technology
        3. Touchscreens
        4. Plasma Display Technology
        5. LCD and DLP Projectors
      6. Using Multiple Monitors
        1. Dualview
        2. Homogeneous Adapters
        3. Heterogeneous Adapters
      7. Choosing the Best Display Hardware for a Particular Task
      8. Video Troubleshooting and Maintenance
        1. Troubleshooting Video Cards and Drivers
        2. Video Drivers
        3. Maintaining Monitors
        4. Testing Monitors
        5. Adjusting Monitors
        6. Bad Pixels
        7. Troubleshooting Monitors
        8. Repairing Monitors
    22. Chapter 12. Audio Hardware
      1. Audio Hardware Concepts and Terms
        1. The Nature of Sound
        2. Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Hardware
        3. Sampling
      2. Early PC Sound Cards
        1. Limitations of Sound Blaster Pro Compatibility
        2. Microsoft Windows and Audio Support
        3. DirectX and Audio Support Hardware
        4. Core Audio APIs for Windows
        5. 3D Gaming Audio Standards
        6. Legacy Audio Support Through Virtualization
      3. Audio Hardware Features
        1. Basic Connectors
        2. Audio Signal Processing Methods
        3. Advanced Audio Features
        4. Volume Control
        5. MIDI Support Features
        6. Data Compression
        7. Sound Drivers
        8. Sound Cards for Sound Producers
      4. Motherboard Chipsets with Integrated Audio
        1. Intel “Azalia” HD Audio
      5. Troubleshooting PC Audio Problems
        1. Sound Card and Onboard Audio Problems
      6. Speakers
        1. Speaker Selection Criteria
        2. Theater and Surround Sound Considerations
      7. Microphones
    23. Chapter 13. External I/O Interfaces
      1. Introduction to Input/Output Ports
        1. Serial Versus Parallel
        2. Universal Serial Bus
        3. IEEE 1394 (FireWire or i.LINK)
        4. Hot-Plugging (and Unplugging)
      2. Thunderbolt Technology
      3. Low-Speed External Connections
        1. Serial Ports
        2. Parallel Ports
    24. Chapter 14. Input Devices
      1. Keyboards
        1. Enhanced 101-Key Keyboard
        2. 103/104-Key Windows Keyboard
      2. Keyboard Technology
        1. Keyswitch Design
        2. The Keyboard Interface
        3. Typematic Functions
        4. Keyboard Scan Codes
        5. International Keyboard Layouts
        6. Keyboard/Mouse Interface Connectors
        7. USB Keyboards
        8. Keyboards with Special Features
      3. Keyboard Troubleshooting and Repair
        1. Cleaning a Keyboard
      4. Keyboard Recommendations
      5. Pointing Devices
        1. Mouse Sensitivity
        2. Ball-Type Mice
        3. Optical Mice
        4. Pointing Device Interface Types
        5. Scroll Wheels
        6. Mouse Troubleshooting
        7. Cleaning Your Mouse
        8. Alternative Pointing Devices
      6. Touchscreen Technology
      7. Wireless Input Devices
        1. Power Management Features of Wireless Input Devices
        2. Supporting Multiple Devices with a Single Transceiver
        3. Troubleshooting Wireless Input Devices
    25. Chapter 15. Internet Connectivity
      1. Internet Connectivity Trends
      2. Broadband Internet Access Types
        1. Cable Internet
        2. Digital Subscriber Line
        3. Wireless Broadband
        4. Cellular Broadband 3G and 4G Services
        5. Satellite Broadband
        6. ISDN
        7. Leased Lines
        8. Comparing High-Speed Internet Access
      3. Dial-Up Modems
      4. Internet Connection Security
        1. Having a Backup Plan in Case of Service Interruptions
        2. Sharing Your Internet Connection
        3. Routers for Internet Sharing
        4. Modem/Router Status LEDs
    26. Chapter 16. Local Area Networking
      1. Defining a Network
        1. Types of Networks
        2. Requirements for a Network
      2. Client/Server Versus Peer Networks
        1. Client/Server Networks
        2. Peer-to-Peer Networks
        3. Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks
      3. Network Architecture Overview
        1. Wired Ethernet
        2. Wireless Ethernet
        3. Bluetooth
      4. Hardware Elements of Your Network
        1. NICs for Wired Ethernet Networks
        2. Network Cables for Wired Ethernet
        3. Wired Network Topologies
        4. Switches for Ethernet Networks
        5. Wireless Ethernet Hardware
      5. Network Protocols
        1. IP and TCP/IP
        2. IPX and NetBEUI
      6. Other Home Networking Solutions
        1. HomePNA
        2. HomeGrid Forum and G.hn Networking
        3. Power Line Networking
      7. Putting Your Network Together
        1. Network Adapters
        2. Cables and Connections Between Computers
        3. Switch/Access Point
    27. Chapter 17. Power Supplies
      1. The Power Supply
      2. Primary Function and Operation
        1. Voltage Rails
        2. The Power Good Signal
      3. Power Supply Form Factors
        1. Modern Form Factors
      4. Power Switches
        1. ATX and Newer
        2. PC/XT/AT and LPX Power Switches
      5. Motherboard Power Connectors
        1. AT/LPX Power Supply Connectors
        2. ATX and ATX12V Motherboard Power Connectors
        3. Backward and Forward Compatibility
        4. Dell Proprietary (Nonstandard) ATX Design
      6. Additional Power Connectors
        1. Peripheral Power Connectors
        2. Floppy (Berg) Power Connectors
        3. Serial ATA Power Connectors
        4. PCI Express Auxiliary Graphics Power Connectors
      7. Power Supply Specifications
        1. Power Supply Loading
        2. Power Supply Ratings
        3. Other Power Supply Specifications
        4. Power Factor Correction
        5. SLI-Ready and CrossFire/CrossFireX Certifications
        6. Safety Certifications
      8. Power-Use Calculations
      9. Power Savings
        1. 80 Plus
        2. ENERGY STAR
        3. Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
      10. Power Cycling
      11. Power Supply Troubleshooting
        1. Overloaded Power Supplies
        2. Inadequate Cooling
        3. Using Digital Multimeters
        4. Specialized Test Equipment
      12. Power Supply Recommendations
        1. Modular Cables
        2. Sources for Replacement Power Supplies
      13. Power-Protection Systems
        1. Surge Suppressors (Protectors)
        2. Network and Phone Line Surge Protectors
        3. Line Conditioners
        4. Backup Power
      14. Real-Time Clock/Nonvolatile RAM (CMOS RAM) Batteries
        1. Modern CMOS Batteries
        2. Obsolete or Unique CMOS Batteries
        3. CMOS Battery Troubleshooting
    28. Chapter 18. Building or Upgrading Systems
      1. System Components
        1. Before You Start: How to Decide What to Build
        2. Case and Power Supply
        3. Processor
        4. Motherboard
        5. Memory
        6. I/O Ports
        7. Hard Disk/Solid-State Drives
        8. Removable Storage
        9. Input Devices
        10. Video Card and Display
        11. Audio Hardware
        12. Accessories
      2. Hardware and Software Resources
      3. System Assembly and Disassembly
        1. Assembly Preparation
        2. Installing the CPU and Heatsink
        3. Installing Memory Modules
        4. Mounting the New Motherboard in the Case
        5. Preparing a Modular Power Supply
        6. Connecting the Power Supply
        7. Connecting I/O and Other Cables to the Motherboard
        8. Installing the Drives
        9. Installing a Video Card
        10. Installing Additional Expansion Cards
        11. Replacing the Cover and Connecting External Cables
      4. System Startup
      5. Installing the OS
      6. Troubleshooting New Installations
    29. Chapter 19. PC Diagnostics, Testing, and Maintenance
      1. PC Diagnostics
      2. Diagnostics Software
        1. The POST
        2. Insyde BIOS Diagnostic and Beep Codes
        3. Peripheral Diagnostics
        4. Operating System Diagnostics
        5. Commercial Diagnostics Software
        6. Free/User-Supported Diagnostics
      3. The Boot Process
        1. The Hardware Boot Process: Operating System Independent
        2. The DOS Boot Process
        3. The Windows 9x/Me Boot Process
        4. Windows 2000/XP Startup
        5. Windows Vista/7 Startup
        6. Windows 8.1/10 Startup
      4. PC Maintenance Tools
        1. Hand Tools
        2. Safety
        3. Test Equipment
        4. Special Tools for the Enthusiast
      5. Preventive Maintenance
        1. Active Preventive Maintenance Procedures
        2. Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures
      6. Troubleshooting Tips and Techniques
        1. Repair or Replace?
        2. Basic Troubleshooting Steps
        3. Troubleshooting by Replacing Parts
        4. Troubleshooting by the Bootstrap Approach
        5. Problems During the POST
        6. Problems Running Software
        7. Problems with Adapter Cards
        8. Top Troubleshooting Problems
    30. Index
    31. Code Snippets