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Understanding Ultrasonic Level Measurement

Book Description

Ultrasonics is a reliable and proven technology for level measurement. It has been used for decades in many diverse industries such as water treatment, mining, aggregates, cement, and plastics. Ultrasonics provides superior inventory accuracy, process control, and user safety. Understanding Ultrasonic Level Measurement is a comprehensive resource in which you will learn about the history of ultrasonics and discover insights about its systems, installation and applications. This book is designed with many user-friendly features and vital resources including: • Real-life application stories • Diagrams and recommendations that aid both the novice and advanced user in the selection and application of an ultrasonic level measurement system • Glossary of terminology

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Acknowledgements
  5. Chapter One History of ultrasonics
    1. Ultrasonics and level measurement
    2. Product development map
    3. Ultrasonic theory
    4. Sound
    5. Using sound
      1. Frequency and wavelength
      2. Measurement principle
      3. The medium and the message
      4. Sound intensity
      5. Sound velocity and temperature
      6. Sound velocity and gas
      7. Sound velocity and pressure
      8. Sound velocity and vacuum
      9. Sound velocity and attenuation
      10. Sound reflection
      11. Sound diffraction
      12. Sound pressure level (SPL)
      13. Sound intensity changes
      14. Summary
  6. Chapter Two Ultrasonic instrumentation
    1. The transducer
    2. Transducer environments
    3. Transducer accuracy
    4. Transducer resolution and accuracy
    5. Impedance matching
    6. Axis of transmission
    7. Beam width
    8. Beam spreading
    9. Ringdown
    10. The controllers
    11. Digital filtering
    12. Averaging echoes
    13. Echo extraction algorithms
    14. Summary
    15. Notes
  7. Chapter Three The sound and the slurry
    1. Topics
    2. Transducers and ultrasonic systems
      1. Single systems
      2. Compound systems
      3. Transducers
      4. Temperature and transducer material
      5. Temperature sensors
      6. Sound and differential amplifiers
      7. Single-ended receiver
      8. Differential receiver
      9. Application temperature
      10. Housing material
      11. Range and power
      12. Conditions
      13. Dust
      14. Stilling wells
      15. Foam facing
      16. Moisture on transducer face
      17. Transducer selection
      18. Blanking distance and height placement
      19. Temperature
      20. Installation
      21. Transducer design: the heart of the matter
      22. Summary
  8. Chapter Four Echo processing
    1. Topics
      1. Echo processing - intelligence
      2. Understanding echo processing
      3. Shots and profiles
      4. Finding the true echo
      5. 1. Filters
      6. 2. True echo selection (selection of echo reflected by the intended target)
      7. 3. Selected echo verification
      8. Echo quality
      9. Figure of merit
      10. Echo parameter fine tuning
      11. Echo profiles
      12. Profile components
      13. Echo profile
      14. Ringdown
      15. TVT curve (Time Varying Threshold)
      16. Echo marker
      17. Echo lock window
      18. Echo processing parameters
      19. Echo confidence
      20. The echo
      21. Echo strength
      22. Noise
      23. Noise interference
      24. Determining the noise source
    2. Non-transducer noise sources
      1. Common wiring problems
      2. Reducing electrical noise
      3. Acoustic noise
      4. Reducing acoustic noise
      5. Summary
  9. Chapter Five Installation
    1. Topics
      1. Select the right transducer
      2. Location
      3. Obstructions
      4. Closed vessels
      5. Tanks
      6. Tank access
      7. Open vessels
      8. Open channel meters: weirs and flumes
      9. Flumes
      10. Transducer location
      11. Lift stations
      12. Position control
      13. Hazardous approvals
      14. Approvals
      15. Controller installation
      16. Summary
  10. Chapter Six Applications
    1. Applications
      1. Topics
      2. Cement
      3. Aggregate
      4. Blending silos and storage bunkers
    2. Environmental
      1. Collection system: lift station/pump station/wet well
      2. Wastewater treatment plant
      3. Environmental applications
      4. Food industry
      5. Chemical industry
      6. Other industries
  11. Chapter Seven Best in class – the ultrasonic product line
    1. SITRANS LUT400
    2. SITRANS Probe LU
    3. The Probe
    4. MultiRanger 100/200
    5. SITRANS LU10
    6. HydroRanger 200
    7. Echomax Transducers
    8. XRS-5
    9. XPS/XCT Series
    10. XLT Series
    11. ST-H
    12. Conclusion
  12. Index
  13. Glossary