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Understanding the Linux Kernel, 3rd Edition by Marco Cesati, Daniel P. Bovet

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Process Descriptor

To manage processes, the kernel must have a clear picture of what each process is doing. It must know, for instance, the process's priority, whether it is running on a CPU or blocked on an event, what address space has been assigned to it, which files it is allowed to address, and so on. This is the role of the process descriptor — a task_struct type structure whose fields contain all the information related to a single process.[*] As the repository of so much information, the process descriptor is rather complex. In addition to a large number of fields containing process attributes, the process descriptor contains several pointers to other data structures that, in turn, contain pointers to other structures. Figure 3-1 describes the Linux process descriptor schematically.

The six data structures on the right side of the figure refer to specific resources owned by the process. Most of these resources will be covered in future chapters. This chapter focuses on two types of fields that refer to the process state and to process parent/child relationships.

Process State

As its name implies, the state field of the process descriptor describes what is currently happening to the process. It consists of an array of flags, each of which describes a possible process state. In the current Linux version, these states are mutually exclusive, and hence exactly one flag of state always is set; the remaining flags are cleared. The following are the possible process states:

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