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Understanding Hard to Maintain Behaviour Change: A Dual Process Approach

Book Description

The book presents an integrative theory of hard-to-maintain behaviours, that includes hard-to-reduce or eliminate behaviours like smoking and other drug use, overconsumption of food or unsafe sex, and hard-to-sustain behaviours like exercise and sun-safe behaviours. Most of the examples come from the author's work on tobacco smoking, but it is relevant to anyone who is concerned to understand why some forms of desirable behaviour are so hard to achieve, and to those trying to help people change. It also has important implications for public health campaigns and for the development of policies to nudge behaviour in desirable ways.

The book provides readers with frameworks to:

  • Determine whether a "hard to maintain" behaviour is a result of the skills needed to perform it, its reinforcement history, the way the person thinks about it, the context, or some combination of these.

  • Better integrate cognitive and behavioural change strategies, including emergent strategies related to mindfulness and acceptance, plus novel ways of retraining operational processes.

  • Understand the different nature of challenges for behaviours where multiple attempts are typically required before the desired behaviour pattern is sustained.

  • Better understand the role of feelings and emotions as influences on behaviour.

  • Understand the limits of environmental factors to determine change.

  • Understand the limits of self-control and will-power.

  • Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. Series Page
    3. Title Page
    4. Copyright
    5. Preface
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. Chapter 1: An overview of the theory
      1. Limitations of the existing theories
      2. Core elements of CEOS
      3. Biological constraints
      4. Elaboration of CEOS theory
      5. References
    8. Chapter 2: Characteristics of hard-to-maintain behaviours
      1. Types of behaviour to change
      2. Hard-to-reduce/resist/eliminate behaviours
      3. Hard-to-sustain behaviours
      4. Combinations of both kinds of behaviour change
      5. What is learnt in HTM behaviour change
      6. References
    9. Chapter 3: The roles of the operational and executive systems
      1. The Operational System
      2. The Executive System
      3. What the ES can do
      4. Relationship of CEOS to other dual-process theories
      5. References
    10. Chapter 4: Environmental influences: the context of change
      1. The relatively stable environment
      2. Changing the broader environment
      3. The interactional environment
      4. References
    11. Chapter 5: Conceptual influences on change
      1. Framing the problem
      2. Organisation of concepts about change
      3. The desirability of change
      4. Goal achievability
      5. Beliefs that can interfere with behaviour change
      6. References
    12. Chapter 6: The structure of the change process
      1. Tasks involved in behaviour change
      2. Getting behaviour change on the agenda
      3. Making an attempt to change
      4. Maintaining change: perseverance
      5. Determinants of maintenance/relapse
      6. Repeated attempts are the norm
      7. References
    13. Chapter 7: Interventions for behaviour change
      1. Internal and external perspectives on change
      2. Differences between HTR and HTS behaviours
      3. Enhancing executive function: optimising understanding
      4. Making relevant knowledge salient
      5. Enhancing self-control
      6. Enhancing self-reorientation
      7. Creating more supportive environments
      8. Integrative strategies
      9. References
    14. Chapter 8: Using CEOS to advance knowledge
      1. Key features of CEOS theory
      2. Key questions to answer for behaviour change
      3. Measuring key constructs
      4. Elements of a theory-driven research agenda
      5. Implications for reducing inequities
      6. Concluding comments
      7. References
    15. Index