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Understanding Emotions, 3rd Edition by Jennifer M. Jenkins, Keith Oatley, Dacher Keltner

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4

Communication of Emotions

CONTENTS

Five Kinds of Nonverbal Behavior

Facial Expressions of Emotion

Markers of Emotional Expressions

Studies of the Universality of Facial Expressions

Critiques of the Studies of Universal Facial Expressions

Discovering New Facial Displays of Emotions

Vocal Communication of Emotions

Examples of Vocal Communication: Teasing and Laughter

The Communication of Emotions with the Voice

Communication of Emotions by Touch

Four Functions of Touch

Communicating Emotions with Touch

Emotional Expression and the Coordination of Social Interaction

Cultural Variation in Emotional Expression

Cultural Variation in Expressive Behavior

Cultural Variation of Interpretation of Emotional Expressions

Communication of Emotion in Art

Four Hypotheses from the Idea of Romanticism

Aesthetic Emotions in the Natyasastra

Summary

To Think About and Discuss

Further Reading

image

FIGURE 4.0 People communicate emotions in many ways, non-verbally by expressions, gestures, and touch, as well as verbally in what we say and how we say it.

… there is a kind of universal language, consisting of expressions of the face and eyes, gestures and tones of voice, which can show whether a person means to ask for something and get it, or refuse it and have nothing to do with it.

(Augustine, Confessions, 1–8)

Next time you leave a classroom, look at the students standing around and talking, perhaps hashing ...

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