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Understanding Biotechnology

Book Description

An objective, thorough, and accessible introduction to biotechnology.

Biotechnology will have an increasingly profound impact on human health, agriculture, the environment, and society itself. Understanding Biotechnology offers an introduction to biotechnology that is balanced, accurate, current, thorough, and accessible to both non-specialists and professionals.

The authors begin with a brief history of biotechnology and an introduction to the underlying principles of genetic engineering. Next, they review every key area of biotechnology research, thoroughly addressing both technical practice and implications—including biosafety and ethical issues.

Understanding Biotechnology presents careful and complete introductions to cloning, gene therapy, pharmacogenomics, molecular markers, forensic DNA, bioremediation, and biodiversity, as well as a full chapter on the risks of bioterrorism. It also includes an extensive glossary and detailed references for further study.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
    1. Dedication
  2. About Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
  5. 1. History: From Biology to Biotechnology
    1. Advent of Biotechnology
    2. Biotechnology Prior to the 21st Century
    3. Production of Proteins
    4. Human Genome Project
      1. Concerns of the Sequencing Project
  6. 2. Genetic Engineering
    1. Central Dogma
    2. Gene Structure
    3. Viruses
    4. Gene Manipulation
      1. General Steps
    5. Engineering Genes
  7. 3. Transformation
    1. Principles of Genetic Transformation
    2. Methods of Genetic Transformation
      1. Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation
      2. Microparticle Bombardment
      3. Microinjection
      4. Direct Transformation
    3. Bottlenecks in Transformation
    4. Genetic Engineering Products
    5. Potential of Transformation
      1. Addition of New Functions
        1. Altered Forms of Enzymes
        2. Overproduction of Proteins
        3. Silencing of Endogenous Genes
        4. New Traits
        5. Disease Resistance
        6. Male Sterility
        7. Bioremediation
        8. Pharmaceuticals
        9. Alteration in the Individual's Architecture
    6. Gene Expression
    7. Transgenic Locus
  8. 4. Biotechnological Products
    1. Economic Aspects
    2. Transgenic Animals
      1. Transgenic Animals as a Source of Organs and Tissue
    3. Transgenics in Agriculture
      1. Varieties Resistant to Herbicides
      2. Crop Varieties Resistant to Insects
      3. Plant Varieties for the Production of Bioplastics
      4. Plants and Animals as Bioreactors
    4. Final Considerations
  9. 5. Biosafety
    1. U.S. Regulatory Agencies
    2. Biosafety in Other Countries
    3. Biotechnology in Agriculture
      1. Transgenic Varieties
      2. Transgenic Animals
    4. Concerns About Biotechnology
      1. Food Safety
      2. Environmental Safety
  10. 6. Cloning
    1. Technical Hurdles in Cloning
    2. Therapeutic Cloning
    3. Human Clones
      1. Scientific Reasons for Not Cloning Humans
  11. 7. Gene Therapy
    1. Genetic Defects
    2. Vectors for Gene Delivery
    3. Gene Therapy Risks
    4. DNA Vaccines
    5. Germ-Line Cell Therapy
    6. Stem Cell Therapy
    7. Final Considerations
  12. 8. Pharmacogenomics
    1. Pharmaceuticals and Side Effects
    2. Pharmaceuticals and Genomes
    3. Hope for Cures
  13. 9. Molecular Markers
    1. DNA Fingerprinting
    2. RFLP
      1. Obtaining RFLPs
        1. DNA Extraction
        2. DNA Digestion
        3. Electrophoretic Separation of Fragments
        4. Hybridization
    3. PCR
      1. Markers Detected by PCR
        1. STR or Microsatellites
        2. RAPD Markers
  14. 10. Forensic DNA
    1. DNA Analysis
      1. Obtaining a DNA Profile
      2. An Example
      3. Databases
      4. Reliability of DNA Tests
      5. Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA
    2. Paternity Tests
      1. Accuracy of the Tests
    3. Genomic Pictures
    4. Final Considerations
  15. 11. Bioremediation
    1. Depolluting Organisms
      1. Microorganisms
      2. Degradation of Radioactive Compounds
      3. Depolluting Plants
    2. Final Considerations
  16. 12. Biodiversity
    1. Preservation of Biodiversity
    2. Genetic Erosion
    3. Gene Banks
    4. Biopiracy
    5. Final Considerations
  17. 13. Bioterrorism
    1. Human Pathogens of Potential Use in Bioterrorism
      1. Anthrax
      2. Smallpox
      3. Cholera
      4. Salmonella
      5. Botulism
      6. Poliomyelitis
      7. Ebola
    2. Toxins
      1. Botulism
      2. Ricin
      3. Trichothecenes
      4. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin
      5. Saxitoxin
    3. Biodefenses
      1. Recombinant Vaccines
      2. Edible Vaccines
    4. Agroterrorism
    5. Recommendations
    6. Final Considerations
  18. 14. Bioethics
    1. Ethics and Genetic Engineering
    2. Genetic Privacy
    3. Patent of Genes
    4. Human “Races”
    5. Trading Human Life
    6. Human Cloning
    7. Stem Cells
    8. Eugenics
    9. Biotechnology and Christian Faith
      1. Human Genome and Religious Considerations
    10. Case Studies
      1. Case 1
        1. Ethical Dilemmas
        2. Possible Solutions
      2. Case 2
        1. Ethical Dilemmas
        2. Possible Solutions
    11. Final Considerations
  19. Glossary
  20. References
    1. SUGGESTED WEB SITES
  21. About the Authors