A. Ramkumar and A. Lal, Cornell University, USA
This chapter presents research efforts towards the use of ultrasonic silicon-based micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) for biomedical applications. Microfabricated silicon-horn-based surgical microprobes and their use in reducing penetration force into biological tissue are described. The chapter describes sensors integrated on the silicon horn, namely, platinum electrodes and piezoresistive polysilicon strain gauges. The chapter includes research studies detailing the use of these sensors in ex vivo cardiac signal recording, and in testicular tubule-size surgery for identifying fertile sperm in the testis.