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Ultrasonic Transducers

Book Description

Ultrasonic transducers are key components in sensors for distance, flow and level measurement as well as in power, biomedical and other applications of ultrasound. Ultrasonic transducers reviews recent research in the design and application of this important technology.

Part one provides an overview of materials and design of ultrasonic transducers. Piezoelectricity and basic configurations are explored in depth, along with electromagnetic acoustic transducers, and the use of ceramics, thin film and single crystals in ultrasonic transducers. Part two goes on to investigate modelling and characterisation, with performance modelling, electrical evaluation, laser Doppler vibrometry and optical visualisation all considered in detail. Applications of ultrasonic transducers are the focus of part three, beginning with a review of surface acoustic wave devices and air-borne ultrasound transducers, and going on to consider ultrasonic transducers for use at high temperature and in flaw detection systems, power, biomedical and micro-scale ultrasonics, therapeutic ultrasound devices, piezoelectric and fibre optic hydrophones, and ultrasonic motors are also described.

With its distinguished editor and expert team of international contributors,Ultrasonic transducers is an authoritative review of key developments for engineers and materials scientists involved in this area of technology as well as in its applications in sectors as diverse as electronics, wireless communication and medical diagnostics.

  • Reviews recent research in the design and application of ultrasonic transducers
  • Provides an overview of the materials and design of ultrasonic transducers, with an in-depth exploration of piezoelectricity and basic configurations
  • Investigates modelling and characterisation, applications of ultrasonic transducers, and ultrasonic transducers for use at high temperature and in flaw detection systems

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
  7. Preface
  8. Part I: Materials and design of ultrasonic transducers
    1. Chapter 1: Piezoelectricity and basic configurations for piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 The piezoelectric effect
      4. 1.3 Piezoelectric materials
      5. 1.4 Piezoelectric transducers
      6. 1.5 Summary, future trends and sources of further information
    2. Chapter 2: Electromagnetic acoustic transducers
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Physical principles
      4. 2.3 Lorentz-force-type transducers
      5. 2.4 Magnetostriction-type transducers
      6. 2.5 Conclusion
    3. Chapter 3: Piezoelectric ceramics for transducers
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 The history of piezoelectrics
      3. 3.2 Piezoelectric materials: present status
    4. Chapter 4: Thin-film PZT-based transducers
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 PZT deposition using the hydrothermal process
      4. 4.3 Applications using the bending and longitudinal vibration of the d31 effect
      5. 4.4 Thickness-mode vibration, d33
      6. 4.5 Epitaxial film
      7. 4.6 Conclusions
    5. Chapter 5: High-Curie-temperature piezoelectric single crystals of the Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3–Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–PbTiO3 ternary system
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 PIMNT ceramics
      4. 5.3 PIMNT single crystals grown by the flux method
      5. 5.4 PIMNT single crystals grown by the Bridgman method
      6. 5.5 Recent research into PIMNT single crystals and their applications
      7. 5.6 Future prospects and tasks
      8. 5.7 Conclusions
  9. Part II: Modelling and characterisation of ultrasonic transducers
    1. Chapter 6: Modelling ultrasonic-transducer performance: one-dimensional models
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Transducer performance expressed through the wave equation
      4. 6.3 Equivalent electrical circuit models
      5. 6.4 The linear systems model
      6. 6.5 Examples
      7. 6.6 Summary, future trends and sources of further information
    2. Chapter 7: The boundary-element method applied to microacoustic devices: zooming into the near field
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 The acoustic wave equation: shear horizontal vibrations
      4. 7.3 Construction of infinite-domain Green's functions
      5. 7.4 Near-field analysis
      6. 7.5 Normalization of the field variables
      7. 7.6 Determining the asymptotic expansion terms for ƞ → 0
      8. 7.7 Future trends
      9. 7.8 Key references for further reading
      10. 7.9 Acknowledgements
    3. Chapter 8: Electrical evaluation of piezoelectric transducers
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Equivalent electrical circuit
      4. 8.3 Electrical measurements
      5. 8.4 Characterization of piezoelectric transducers under high-power operation
      6. 8.5 Load test
      7. 8.6 Summary
    4. Chapter 9: Laser Doppler vibrometry for measuring vibration in ultrasonic transducers
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Laser Doppler vibrometry for non-contact vibration measurements
      4. 9.3 Characterization of ultrasonic transducers and optimization of ultrasonic tools
      5. 9.4 Enhanced LDV designs for special measurements
      6. 9.5 Conclusion and summary
    5. Chapter 10: Optical visualization of acoustic fields: the schlieren technique, the Fresnel method and the photoelastic method applied to ultrasonic transducers
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Schlieren visualization technique
      4. 10.3 Fresnel visualization method
      5. 10.4 Photoelastic visualization method
  10. Part III: Applications of ultrasonic transducers
    1. Chapter 11: Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Interdigital transducers (IDTs)
      4. 11.3 Transversal SAW filter
      5. 11.4 SAW resonators
      6. 11.5 Conclusions
    2. Chapter 12: Airborne ultrasound transducers
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Basic design principles
      4. 12.3 Transducer designs for use in air
      5. 12.4 Radiated fields in air
      6. 12.5 Applications
      7. 12.6 Future trends
      8. 12.7 Sources of further information and advice
      9. 12.8 Acknowledgements
    3. Chapter 13: Transducers for non-destructive evaluation at high temperatures
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Transducers for non-destructive evaluation at high temperatures
      3. 13.2 Sol-gel composite ultrasonic transducers
      4. 13.3 Structural-health monitoring demonstration
      5. 13.4 Process-monitoring demonstration
      6. 13.5 Conclusions
    4. Chapter 14: Analysis and synthesis of frequency-diverse ultrasonic flaw-detection systems using order statistics and neural network processors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Ultrasonic flaw-detection techniques
      4. 14.3 Neural network detection processor
      5. 14.4 Flaw-detection performance evaluation
      6. 14.5 System-on-a-chip implementation – a case study
      7. 14.6 Future trends
      8. 14.7 Conclusions
      9. 14.8 Further information
    5. Chapter 15: Power ultrasonics: new technologies and applications for fluid processing
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 New power ultrasonic technologies for fluids and multiphase media
      4. 15.3 Application of the new power ultrasonic technology to processing
      5. 15.4 Conclusions
      6. 15.5 Acknowledgements
    6. Chapter 16: Nonlinear acoustics and its application to biomedical ultrasonics
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Basic aspects of nonlinear acoustic wave propagation and associated phenomena
      4. 16.3 Measurements of and advances in the determination of B/A
      5. 16.4 Advances in tissue harmonic imaging
      6. 16.5 Nonlinear acoustics in ultrasound metrology
      7. 16.6 Nonlinear wave propagation in hydrophone probe calibration
      8. 16.7 Nonlinear acoustics in therapeutic applications
      9. 16.8 Conclusions
      10. 16.9 Acknowledgements
    7. Chapter 17: Therapeutic ultrasound with an emphasis on applications to the brain
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 Introduction and summary
      3. 17.2 Fundamentals of propagation and absorption of ultrasound
      4. 17.3 Acoustic attenuation as absorption plus scattering
      5. 17.4 Physical and chemical processes engendered by medical ultrasound
      6. 17.5 Bubble formation and growth
      7. 17.6 Inertial cavitation and associated material stresses
      8. 17.7 Mechanical index
      9. 17.8 Diagnostic ultrasound
      10. 17.9 Therapeutic ultrasound
      11. 17.10 Ultrasound-facilitated delivery of drugs and antibodies into the brain
      12. 17.11 Neuromodulation by ultrasound
      13. 17.12 Conclusion
    8. Chapter 18: Microscale ultrasonic sensors and actuators
      1. Abstract:
      2. 18.1 Introduction: ultrasonic horn actuators
      3. 18.2 Advantages of silicon-based technology
      4. 18.3 Silicon ultrasonic horns
      5. 18.4 Sensor integration and fabrication of silicon horns
      6. 18.5 Planar electrode characterization
      7. 18.6 Piezoresistive strain gauges
      8. 18.7 Applications: tissue penetration force reduction
      9. 18.8 Applications: cardiac electrophysiological measurement
      10. 18.9 Applications: microscale tissue metrology in testicular sperm extraction (TESE) surgery
      11. 18.10 Conclusions
    9. Chapter 19: Piezoelectric and fibre-optic hydrophones
      1. Abstract:
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 General hydrophone considerations
      4. 19.3 Piezoelectric hydrophones
      5. 19.4 Fibre-optic hydrophones
      6. 19.5 Summary
    10. Chapter 20: Ultrasonic motors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 20.1 Introduction
      3. 20.2 Standing-wave ultrasonic motors
      4. 20.3 Traveling-wave ultrasonic motors
      5. 20.4 Ultrasonic motor performance
      6. 20.5 Summary and future trends
  11. Index