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Ubiquitous Health and Medical Informatics: The Ubiquity 2.0 Trend and Beyond

Book Description

Ubiquitous Health and Medical Informatics: The Ubiquity 2.0 Trend and Beyond provides insight into the various trends, innovations, and organizational challenges of contemporary ubiquitous health and medical informatics. Contributions highlight changes to healthcare distribution that will significantly revolutionize the exchange between healthcare providers and consumers.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. Foreword
  5. Preface
    1. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
      1. Section 1: Background
      2. Section 2: Research Issues
      3. Section 3: Management Issues
      4. Section 4: Applications
      5. Section 5: The Future
    2. REFERENCES
  6. Acknowledgment
  7. 1. Background
    1. 1. Identifying the Emerging e-Health Technologies: To Ubiquity 2.0 and Beyond
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THE XMALIZATION TECHNOLOGIES: THE ROADMAP OF UBIQUITY 1.0
      3. THE WEB-ORIENTED TECHNOLOGIES: THE UBIQUITY 2.0 TREND
      4. THE REALAM OF E-HEALTH BASED ON UBIQUITY 2.0 TREND
      5. BEYOND THE UBIQUITY 2.0 TREND: THE SECURITY CONCERN
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
  8. 2. Research Issues
    1. 2. Semantic Interoperability: Issue of Standardizing Medical Vocabularies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Vocabulary
        2. Terminology
        3. Nomenclature
        4. Classification
        5. Taxonomy
        6. Ontology
      4. BASIC FEATURES OF A TERMINOLOGY
        1. Classes of Data
      5. CONTROLLED TERMINOLOGIES
        1. International Classification of Disease
        2. Current Procedural Terminology (CPT)
        3. Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS)
        4. Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs)
        5. Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC®)
        6. National Drug Codes (NDC)
        7. RxNorm
        8. RxTerms
        9. VA National Drug File Reference Terminology (NDF-RT)
        10. International Health Terminology Standards Development Organization (IHTSDO)
        11. Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED®)
        12. International Classification for Primary Care (ICPC)
        13. MEDCIN®
        14. Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA)
        15. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
        16. Health Level Seven Tables
        17. Gene Ontology
        18. Nursing Terminologies
          1. North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA)
          2. Clinical Care Classification System (CCC)
          3. Patient Care Data Set (PCDS)
          4. Omaha System
          5. AORN Perioperative Nursing Data Set (PNDS)
          6. International Classification of Nursing Practice
          7. Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC)
          8. Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC)
          9. Nursing Terminologies Summary
        19. Unified Medical Language System
      6. DATA ELEMENTS
      7. ISO 11179 - INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY - SPECIFICATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF DATA ELEMENTS
        1. United States Health Information Knowledgebase (USHIK)
        2. Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (CDISC)
        3. National Cancer Institute (NCI)
        4. Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG)®
      8. ISSUES AND PROPOSED SOLUTIONS
        1. Characteristics of the Master Data Element Repository
          1. Definition
          2. Coding
          3. Name
          4. Short Name
          5. Synonyms
          6. Units
          7. Data Type
          8. Value Set
          9. Classes
          10. Classifications
          11. Citation
          12. Relational Links
          13. Language
          14. Purpose
          15. Administrative Attributes
        2. Use of Master Data Element Repository
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    2. 3. Personal Health Records: Status-Quo and Future Perspectives
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. PHR Benefits
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. PHR Defined
        2. PHR Design Attributes
        3. PHR Evolution
        4. PHR Models
        5. PHR Stakeholders
          1. Healthcare Providers
          2. Health Insurers
          3. Employers
          4. Healthcare Information Services
      4. OPEN SOURCE PHRS
        1. PHR Adoption Challenges
          1. Privacy and Security
          2. Interoperability
          3. Portability
          4. Standards
        2. Accelerating PHR Adoption through Open Source
        3. Open Source PHR System Architecture
        4. Open Source PHR Contents
        5. Open Source PHR Functionalities
          1. Data Creation, Collection, and Aggregation
          2. Security & Privacy
          3. Accessibility
          4. Transportability
          5. Personal Health Management
          6. Clinical Decision Support
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. 4. A Framework for Privacy Assurance and Ubiquitous Knowledge Discovery in Health 2.0 Data Mashups
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Master Patient Index
        2. Federated Identity Management
        3. Data Mining and Methodology
        4. Health 2.0 Technologies
        5. Data Integration Standards and Tools
      4. HEALTH 2.0 KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY FRAMEWORK
      5. E-HEALTH KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY SCENARIO
      6. HEALTH 2.0 DATA SHARING ARCHITECTURE
      7. KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY PROCESS FOR HEALTH 2.0
        1. Business Understanding
        2. Data Understanding
        3. Data Preparation
        4. Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing
        5. Privacy-Preserving Data Integration
        6. Modeling
        7. Statistical Techniques
        8. OLAP Data Model
        9. Text Mining Methods
        10. Data Streams
        11. Evaluation
        12. Deployment
        13. Monitoring
      8. ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF HEALTH 2.0 KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    4. 5. A Semantic Model to Address Health Questions to Professionals in Healthcare Social Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RELATED WORK
      5. SEMANTIC MODEL AND METHOD TO ADDRESS QUESTIONS TO PROFESSIONALS
        1. Semantic Model Description
        2. Ontology Components
        3. Automatic Classification of Questions
        4. Experimental Results
        5. Extensions to the Method
      6. A CASE STUDY
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    5. 6. An Integrated System for E-Medicine (E-Health, Telemedicine and Medical Expert Systems)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Medical Information Systems
        2. Telemedicine
        3. Expert Systems
      4. MODEL OF AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR E-MEDICINE
        1. Implementing an E-Medicine System in a Developing IT Society
        2. Wireless Infrastructure
        3. Implemented Services and Functionalities
      5. OUR MEDICAL EXPERT SYSTEM
        1. Extracting Knowledge in Expert Systems, Rule Induction
        2. An Overview of Rule Induction Algorithms
        3. Heuristic Search Algorithms in Data Mining and Rule Induction
        4. SA Tabu Miner - Algorithm for Rule Induction
        5. Experimental Results and Discussion
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
    6. 7. Web 2.0 Approaches for Active, Collaborative Learning in Medicine and Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Education in Medicine and Health
        2. Information & Communication Technologies in Health and Medical Education
        3. Web and Web 2.0
      4. WEB 2.0 IN MEDICAL EDUCATION
        1. Current Web 2.0 Applications in Medical Education
        2. Challenges and Emerging Applications
        3. Supporting Problem-Based Learning
        4. New Possibilities for Assessment and Evaluation
        5. Content Sharing in Medical Education
        6. Content Repurposing via Collaborative, Social Networks
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
    7. 8. Integrating Medicinal Learning Objects with Daily Duties
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LEARNING OBJECTS AND METADATA BASED SEARCHING
        1. Learning Objects
        2. Learning Objects and Metadata
        3. Metadata Standards
        4. Annotating Documents by Metadata Items
      4. TAXONOMY-AND THESAURUS-BASED SEARCHING OF MEDICINAL LEARNING OBJECTS
        1. Taxonomy
        2. Thesaurus
      5. ONTOLOGY-BASED SEARCHING
        1. A Medicinal Ontology
        2. Storing Medicinal Instructions into a Knowledge Base
        3. Using OWL for Presenting Ontologies
        4. Storing Ontologies in Relational Database Systems
      6. ATTACHING LEARNING ONJECTS TO DAILY DUTIES
        1. Using BPMN in Specifying Medical Processes
        2. Attaching Learning Objects into Tasks
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    8. 9. Personal Health Information in the Age of Ubiquitous Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Ubiquitous Heath Information Today: Towards a Definition
      4. THE HISTORY OF UHI: HOW DID WE GET HERE?
        1. Health Care Consumerism
        2. Shared Decision Making
        3. The Chronic Care Model and Chronic Disease Management
        4. UHI and the Management of Chronic Illness
        5. Exchanging Health Information
        6. Electronic Health Records (EHRs)
        7. Personal Health Records (PHRs)
        8. Sharing Personal Information and Web 2.0
        9. Types of Health Information
        10. General Health Information
        11. Personal Health Information
        12. Experiential Health Information
      5. BENEFITS AND RISKS: WHERE ARE WE NOW?
        1. Benefits of Personal Health Information
        2. Access to Information
        3. Transportability
        4. Self-Managed Care
      6. RISKS OF UBIQUITOUS HEALTH INFORMATION
        1. Risks to the Individual: Privacy
        2. Risks to Organizations: Security
        3. Risks to the Community: Social Justice and Equity
      7. OPPORTUNITIES
        1. Opportunities in Education: Tailored Education
        2. Opportunities for the Clinic: Personal Health Programs
        3. Opportunities in Research: Data Mining
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
        1. Benefits Evaluation and Research on UHI
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. 10. Healthcare Collaborative Framework Based on Web 2.0, Grid Computing and SOA
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Web 2.0 for Healthcare Framework
        2. Healthcare Blogs
        3. Healthcare Wikis
        4. Healthcare Social Networking
        5. Healthcare Podcasting
        6. Healthcare Web 2.0: What is Next?
        7. Web 2.0 and Grid Computing
        8. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)
      4. SOAW2G
        1. Resources Layer
        2. Resources Management Layer
        3. Control Layer
        4. Support Functions Layer
        5. User Interface Layer
        6. User Layer
        7. Security Layer
        8. Management Layer
        9. Knowledge Layer
      5. SOAW2G IN ACTION
        1. Deploying Resources
        2. Managing Resources
        3. Managing Security
        4. User Interaction and Collaborative Framework
        5. Knowledge Layer
      6. MEDICAL OPEN STANDARD FORMAT
      7. HEALTHCARE ONTOLOGY
      8. CASE STUDY: E-HEALTHCARE MONITORING SYSTEM (EHMS)
        1. EHMs Scenario
        2. Ontology for HEMS
        3. EHMS: Example
      9. FUTURE WORK
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    10. 11. An Agent-Based Architecture to Ubiquitous Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. AGENTS BASED ARCHITECTURE
      5. CLINICAL DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM
        1. Initial considerations
        2. Agents and Their Interaction
        3. Security
        4. Database
        5. Interfaces
      6. APPLICATION SCENARIO
      7. ETHICAL ISSUES
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    11. 12. Semantic Web Architecture to Provide E-Health Content and Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FROM PHYSICAL WEB TO SEMANTIC WEB: A VITAL UPGRADE
        1. Lack of Universally-Uniformed Syntax for Data
        2. Lack of Metadata Descriptions for Online Health Resources
        3. Lack of Universal Information Service Engines
      4. VITAL TRIPLE UPGRADE TO HEALTH/MEDICAL SEMANTIC WEB ARCHITECTURE: IMPROVING ACCESSIBILITY OF HEALTH RESOURCES
      5. HTML TO XML: PROVIDING UNIVERSAL DATA SYNTAX
      6. HL7
      7. MML
      8. DICOM-SR
      9. RDF AND RDF SCHEMA TO DESCRIBE HEALTH RESOURCES
        1. RDF schema
      10. WEB ONTOLOGY LANGUAGE (OWL) TO ENABLE SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES
      11. COMPOSITE SERVICE (SERVICE FLOW)
      12. SEMANTIC WEB (AND SERVICES) ARCHITECTURE
      13. MAJOR CHALLENGES AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. REFERENCES
  9. 3. Management Issues
    1. 13. Mobile Virtual Communities in Healthcare: The Chronic Disease Management Case
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Chronic Diseases
        2. Self Managed Care
      3. VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES AND MOBILITY
        1. Virtual Communities
        2. Mobility in VCs
        3. Health Virtual Communities
        4. Opportunity
      4. RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES IN CHRONIC DISEASE MANAGEMENT
        1. A Versatile MVC Model for Chronic Disease Management
          1. Mutual Support: Patient to Patient Communication
          2. Patient Monitoring: Patient to Caregiver Communication
        2. Mobile Chronic Disease Management Scenarios
          1. Scenario 1: Diabetes
          2. Scenario 2: Obesity
      5. DISCUSSION
        1. Advantages
        2. Challenges and Limitation of Mobility
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    2. 14. Privacy Enhancing Technologies in Electronic Health Records
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Health Records
        2. Health Data
        3. Legal Framework
        4. Cryptographic Preliminaries
        5. Encryption
        6. Public Key Infrastructure
        7. Cryptographic Hash Functions and Digital Signatures
        8. Key Management
      4. SECURITY THREATS IN ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS
        1. Potential Adversaries and Attacks
      5. CONTENT DATA AND METADATA IN CONTEXT OF EHR SYSTEMS
      6. MISUSE AND CONSEQUENCES
      7. PRIVACY ENHANCING TECHNOLOGIES IN EHR SYSTEMS
        1. Administrative, Physical and Technical Safeguards
        2. Authentication
        3. Confidentiality
        4. Integrity
        5. Authorization
        6. Data Anonymity
        7. Anonymous Communication
        8. Unlinkability
        9. Obfuscation
        10. Information Hiding
        11. Pseudo-Information Hiding
        12. Information Hiding with Plausible Deniability
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
    3. 15. Privacy-Based Multiagent Brokering Architecture for Ubiquitous Healthcare Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BROKERING - CAPABILITY BASED COORDINATION
      4. PRIVACY
      5. BACKGROUND
      6. THE BROKERING LAYER
      7. BROKERING INTERACTION PROTOCOLS
        1. The Requester-Brokering Interaction Patterns
        2. The Negotiator
        3. The Mediator
        4. The Advertiser
        5. The Bulletinboard
      8. THE PROVIDER-BROKERING INTERACTION PATTERNS
        1. The Arbitrator
        2. The Broadcaster
        3. The Recommender
        4. The Anonymizer
      9. THE PRIVACY-BASED BROKERING PROTOCOLS
      10. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
        1. The Domain Agent: Service Providers and Requesters
      11. THE BROKERING AGENTS: REQBROKERS AND PROVBROKERS
        1. The ReqBroker Agent
          1. The ReqBroker Interaction Device: Assignment
          2. The Negotiator Design
          3. The Mediator Design
          4. The Advertiser Design
          5. The Bulletinboard Design
        2. The ProvBroker Agent
          1. The ProvBroker Interaction Device: Assignment
          2. The Arbitrator Design
          3. The Broadcaster Design
          4. The Recommender Design
          5. The Anonymizer Design
      12. PROTOTYPE IMPLEMENTATION
      13. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. REFERENCES
      16. ENDNOTES
    4. 16. Managing E-Health in the Age of Web 2.0: The Impact on E-Health Evaluation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. HOW WEB 2.0 IMPACTS E-HEALTH EVALUATION AND INVESTMENT DESCISIONS
        1. Looking Beyond Web 2.0's Potential: Emerging Issues with Medicine 2.0
        2. Web 2.0 Alternatives to Existing Orthodoxy on E-Health Program Investment
      4. EXAMPLES OF ICT EVALUATION FRAMEWORKS IN HEALTH
      5. BEYOND FRAMEWORKS: EXAMPLE E-HEALTH EVALUATION STUDIES IN RESEARCH
        1. Solutions for Addressing Evaluation Techniques in the Age of Web 2.0
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. 17. Academic Family Health Teams: Collaborative Lessons from the Far Flung North
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COLLABORATIVE CARE AND LEARNING WITH HEALTH 2.0 TOOLS
        1. Issues, Controversies, Problems
        2. Factors Affecting Collaborative Activity
        3. Solutions and Recommendations
        4. Groupware
        5. Team Site
        6. Shared Folders
        7. Wikis
        8. Blogs
        9. Messaging
        10. Mobile Devices
        11. Data Synchronization
        12. Paging Doctor Smith
        13. Location Based Services
        14. Education and Research in Primary Health Care
        15. YouTubeTM and PocketSnips
        16. Mashups
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
  10. 4. Applications
    1. 18. The K4Care Platform: Design and Implementation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE K40ARE ARCHITECTURE
      5. KNOWLEDGE BASES
        1. Electronic Health-Care Record
        2. Medico-Organizational Ontologies
        3. Intervention Plans and Procedures
      6. K4CARE PLATFORM
        1. Multi-Agent System
        2. Web Server and User Front-End
          1. Data Flow between the User and His/Her Actor Agent
          2. Client Layer
          3. Servlet Layer
          4. Gateway Agent Layer
          5. Traffic Workflow Adaptation
      7. DATA ABSTRACTION LAYER
      8. PERSONALIZATION
      9. SECURITY
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
    2. 19. Electronic Environments for Integrated Care Management: Case of Depression Treatment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MODELS AND ENVIRONMENTS FOR CARE MANAGEMENT AND ACTIVE PATIENT INVOLVEMENT
        1. The Health Care Process and Models
        2. ICT Support for Care Management and Active Patient Engagement
          1. Process Support Environments
          2. Technologies for Information Integration
          3. User Interaction Technologies
      5. CASE DESCRIPTION OF USE OF WEB AND IMS SUPPORTED ENVIRONMENT FOR PROCESS SUPPORT: E-DEPRESSION PROJECT
      6. DEPRESSION TREATMENT ISSUES
        1. State of the Art
        2. Methods
        3. Preliminary Results
        4. Problems Faced
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    3. 20. Building Virtual Communities for Health Promotion: Emerging Best Practices through an Analysis of the International Health Challenge & Related Literature in Second Life
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE MECHANICS, ECONOMY, AND COMMUNITY OF SECOND LIFE
      5. VALUE OF SECOND LIFE TO HEALTH EDUCATORS, RESEARCHERS, AND PRACTITIONERS (ERPs)
      6. THE INTERNATIONAL HEALTH CHALLENGE IN SECOND LIFE
      7. MAIN FOCUS OF CHAPTER
        1. Issues, Controversies, Problems & Solutions and Recommendations
          1. Program Design
          2. Client & In-World Features
          3. Acquiring Literature
          4. Notable In-World Groups
          5. Legal & Institutional Considerations
          6. Leveraging Real & In-World Resources
          7. Third-Party Resources
          8. Possible Uses of SL for Health Related Educators, Researchers, and Practitioners (ERPs)
          9. Research
          10. Education
          11. eHealth
          12. Scaling to Fit Participants
          13. In-World Staff
          14. Data Types & Storage
          15. Program Setup
          16. Developers
          17. Land
          18. Real World Integration
          19. Testing
          20. Recruitment & Publicity
          21. Participant Retention
          22. Incorporating Feedback
          23. Handling Abuse
          24. Managing Expectations
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. 21. Dynamic Business Processes and Virtual Communities in Wireless eHealth Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND THEORY
        1. Virtual Teams
        2. Collaboration through Computer Supported Collaborated Work
        3. Workflow Management
        4. Workflow Standards
        5. Technical Trends
      4. A PROPOSED EXTENDED MODEL
        1. Medical Virtual Teams
        2. Short Distance Medical Virtual Teams (Hospital Medical VTs)
        3. Long Distance Medical Virtual Teams (Home Care Medical VTs)
        4. Variable Distance Medical Virtual Teams (Emergency Medical VTs)
        5. E-Health Collaboration
      5. THE WORKING ORGANIZATION OF THE UsERs (SAME VERSUS DIFFERENT)
        1. E-Health Workflow Management
      6. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
        1. Discussion and Technical Requirements
        2. The Computational Model for Wireless Virtual Medical Teams
      7. A PROPOSED CSCW SYSTEM
        1. Architecture
        2. Features
        3. Medical Virtual Teams
        4. Dynamic Questionnaires (Voting)
        5. Actions
        6. Dynamic Workflows (Interactive Message)
        7. Responsibilities
        8. Timeouts & Triggers
        9. Medical Diaries
        10. Pro-Activeness
        11. Implementation
        12. Windows-Based Application (Administration)
        13. Web-Based Application (Users)
      8. EVALUATION
        1. Methodology and Sampling
        2. Results
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    5. 22. Digital Pathology and Virtual Microscopy Integration in E-Health Records
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS DIGITAL PATHOLOGY?
      3. DIGITAL ORDERS AND REPORTS IN ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY
      4. DIGITAL IMAGING IN ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY
        1. Acquiring Digital Images in Anatomic Pathology
          1. Storage Dimension
          2. Scanning Speed
          3. Compression
          4. Quality of Digital Slides
        2. Using Digital Images in Anatomic Pathology
          1. Human Interpretation of Digital Images
            1. Viewers
            2. Viewing Digital Images through Internet
            3. Different Contexts of Use
            4. Diagnostic Accuracy with Digital Slides
          2. Automated Image Analysis and Computer-Aided Decisions
        3. Integrating Anatomic Pathology Digital Images into PACS
          1. Defining Relevant DICOM Objects for Anatomic Pathology
          2. Specifying Anatomic Pathology PACS
      5. INTEGRATING DIGITAL PATHOLOGY TO THE HEALTHCARE ENTERPRISE
        1. HL7: Health Level Seven
        2. IHE: Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise
        3. Terminology and Data Representation Standards
      6. ORGANIZATION IN DIGITAL PATHOLOGY
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    6. 23. Content-Based Image Retrieval for Digital Mammography
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. CBIR in Computer-Aided Diagnosis
        2. Mammography
      4. CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL IN MAMMOGRAPHY
        1. Review of Existing Work
        2. Selecting Salient Image Features for Mammogram Lesions
      5. LEARNING PERCEPTUAL SIMILARITY FOR MAMMOGRAM RETRIEVAL
        1. Supervised Learning Approach
        2. Unsupervised Learning Approach
        3. Performance Evaluation
      6. CASE STUDY: SIMILARITY MEASURE FROM EXPERT OBSERVERS
        1. Reader Study
      7. SUPERVISED SIMILARITY LEARNING
        1. Relevance Feedback in CBIR Databases
        2. Issues and Recommendations
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    7. 24. Feature Evaluation and Classification for Content-Based Medical Image Retrieval System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FEATURES FOR CBIR
        1. Appearance-Based Image Feature
        2. Color Features
          1. Color Moments
          2. Color Histogram
          3. Color Coherence Vector
        3. Texture Features
          1. Tamura Features
          2. Global Texture Descriptor
          3. Wavelets Transform Coefficients
          4. Gabor Features
        4. Local Features
        5. MPEG-7 Features
          1. MPEG-7: Color Layout Descriptor
          2. MPEG-7: Color Structure Descriptor
          3. MPEG-7: Edge Histogram Descriptor
          4. MPEG-7: Homogenous Texture Descriptor
          5. MPEG-7: Region Shape Descriptor
      5. CBIR SYSTEM
        1. Grouping of Visually Similar Images
      6. BENCHMARK DATABASES FOR CBIR
      7. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF FEATURES
        1. Retrieval Metric
        2. Experimental Results and Discussion
        3. Image Classification
        4. Hierarchical Annotation of Medical Images
          1. Problem Definition
          2. Ensembles for PCTs for Hierarchical Multi-Label Classification
      8. AUTOMATIC IMAGE MODALITY BASED CLASSIFICATION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    8. 25. Virtual Reality as an Experiential Tool: The Role of Virtual Worlds in Psychological Interventions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VIRTUAL REALITY: THE TECHNOLOGY
        1. Hardware
        2. Software
      4. VIRTUAL REALITY: THE EXPERIENCE
      5. VIRTUAL REALITY IN CLINICAL PRACTICE
        1. Advantages of Using VR in the Treatment of Anxiety disorders
      6. ONLINE VIRTUAL WORLDS: THE NEW FRONTIER FOR VIRTUAL THERAPY
        1. 3-D On-Line Worlds for Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
        2. 3-D On-Line Worlds for Creating Virtual Communities of Patients
        3. Second Life and Psychotherapy: An Exploratory Case Study
          1. The Patient
          2. The Therapist
          3. Assessment
          4. The Second Life Virtual Office
          5. Treatment Schedules
          6. Technical Requirements
          7. Quantitative Data
          8. Qualitative Observations
          9. Conclusions
        4. Issues, Controversies, Problems
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    9. 26. Use of Clinical Simulations to Evaluate the Impact of Health Information Systems and Ubiquitous Computing Devices Upon Health Professional Work
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UNDERSTANDING THE NEED FOR APPLYING CLINICAL SIMULATIONS TO THE EVALUATON OF HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING DEVICES
      4. THE THEORY OF COGNITIVE-SOCIO-TECHNICAL FIT, HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING DEVICES
        1. Cognitive-Socio-Technical Fit and Healthcare Processes and Outcomes
      5. CLINICAL SIMULATIONS: A METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING DEVICES UPON HEALTH PROFESSIONAL WORK
        1. History of the Use of Clinical Simulations is Healthcare
        2. Clinical Simulations and Health Professional Education
      6. APPLICATION OF CLINICAL SIMULATIONS TO THE EVALUATION OF HEALTH INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING DEVICES
        1. The Clinical Simulation Methodology
        2. Creating Representative Clinical Environments
        3. Tangible and Intangible Aspects of Creating Representative Clinical Environments
        4. Use of Representative Equipment
        5. Use of Representative Patients and Other Health Professionals
        6. Use of Scenarios
        7. Selecting Representative Tasks
        8. Inviting Representative Participants
        9. Data Collection
        10. Data Analysis
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. 27. Technology and Human Resources Management in Health Care
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE INTERSECTION OF ICT AND HRM IN HEALTH CARE
        1. ICT and HRM Issues in Urban-Developed Regions
        2. ICT and HRM Issues in Rural Developed Regions
        3. ICT and HRM Issues in Urban Developing Regions
        4. ICT and HRM Issues in Rural Developing Regions
      4. SUMMARY: SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. THE FUTURE: TRAINING AND EDUCATION
      6. LEARNING WITH VIRTUAL PATIENTS
      7. MEDICAL SIMULATIONS
      8. COMMUNITY OF LEARNERS/COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE
      9. INTERNATIONAL VIRTUAL MEDICAL SCHOOL (IVIMEDS)
      10. HUMAN RESOURCES: NEW ROLES
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
  11. 5. The Future
    1. 28. Enabling Technologies and Challenges for the Future of Ubiquitous Health: The Interoperability Framework
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PROMISE OR PERIL?
      5. WEB 2.0, WEB 3.0, HEALTH 2.0, and MEDICINE 2.0 AND A NEW WAY OF THINKING
      6. HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: A CRITICAL APPROACH TO ASSESSING EFFECTIVENESS
      7. A NEW PARADIGM FOR THINKING ABOUT HEALTH SYSTEM INTEROPERABILITY
      8. IMPROVING UNDERSTANDING
        1. Improving Understanding of Citizens
        2. Improving Understanding of Providers
        3. Improving Understanding of Researchers
        4. Improving Understanding of Policy Makers
      9. IMPROVING ACCESS
        1. Improving Access of Citizens
        2. Improving Access of Providers
        3. Improving Access of Researchers
        4. Improving Access of Policy Makers
      10. IMPROVING TRUST
        1. Improving Trust of Citizens
        2. Improving Trust of Providers
        3. Improving Trust of Researchers
        4. Improving Trust of Policy Makers
      11. IMPROVING DISCOURSE
        1. Improving Discourse of Citizens
        2. Improving Discourse of Providers
        3. Improving Discourse of Researchers
        4. Improving Discourse of Policy Makers
      12. IMPROVING BEHAVIOR AND PRACTICE
        1. Improving Behavior and Practice of Citizens
        2. Improving Behavior and Practice of Providers
        3. Improving Behavior and Practice of Researchers
        4. Improving Behavior and Practice of Policy Makers
      13. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. REFERENCES
      16. ADDITIONAL READING
  12. Compilation of References
  13. About the Contributors