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U Can: Statistics For Dummies

Book Description

Make studying statistics simple with this easy-to-read resource

Wouldn't it be wonderful if studying statistics were easier? With U Can: Statistics I For Dummies, it is! This one-stop resource combines lessons, practical examples, study questions, and online practice problems to provide you with the ultimate guide to help you score higher in your statistics course. Foundational statistics skills are a must for students of many disciplines, and leveraging study materials such as this one to supplement your statistics course can be a life-saver. Because U Can: Statistics I For Dummies contains both the lessons you need to learn and the practice problems you need to put the concepts into action, you'll breeze through your scheduled study time.

Statistics is all about collecting and interpreting data, and is applicable in a wide range of subject areas—which translates into its popularity among students studying in diverse programs. So, if you feel a bit unsure in class, rest assured that there is an easy way to help you grasp the nuances of statistics!

  • Understand statistical ideas, techniques, formulas, and calculations

  • Interpret and critique graphs and charts, determine probability, and work with confidence intervals

  • Critique and analyze data from polls and experiments

  • Combine learning and applying your new knowledge with practical examples, practice problems, and expanded online resources

  • U Can: Statistics I For Dummies contains everything you need to score higher in your fundamental statistics course!

    Table of Contents

      1. Cover
      2. Introduction
        1. About This Book
        2. Foolish Assumptions
        3. Beyond the Book
        4. Where to Go from Here
      3. Part I: Getting Started with Statistics
        1. Chapter 1: The Statistics of Everyday Life
          1. Statistics and the Media: More Questions than Answers?
          2. Using Statistics at Work
        2. Chapter 2: Taking Control: So Many Numbers, So Little Time
          1. Detecting Errors, Exaggerations, and Just Plain Lies
          2. Feeling the Impact of Misleading Statistics
        3. Chapter 3: Tools of the Trade
          1. Thriving in a Statistical World
          2. Statistics: More than Just Numbers
          3. Designing Appropriate Studies
          4. Collecting Quality Data
          5. Grabbing Some Basic Statistical Jargon
          6. Drawing Credible Conclusions
          7. Becoming a Sleuth, Not a Skeptic
      4. Part II: Number-Crunching Basics
        1. Chapter 4: Crunching Categorical Data
          1. Summing Up Data with Descriptive Statistics
          2. Crunching Categorical Data: Tables and Percents
        2. Chapter 5: Means, Medians, and More
          1. Measuring the Center with Mean and Median
          2. Accounting for Variation
          3. Examining the Empirical Rule (68-95-99.7)
          4. Measuring Relative Standing with Percentiles
        3. Chapter 6: Getting the Picture: Graphing Categorical Data
          1. Take Another Little Piece of My Pie Chart
          2. Raising the Bar on Bar Graphs
        4. Chapter 7: Going by the Numbers: Graphing Numerical Data
          1. Handling Histograms
          2. Examining Boxplots
          3. Tackling Time Charts
      5. Part III: Distributions and the Central Limit Theorem
        1. Chapter 8: Coming to Terms with Probability
          1. A Set Notation Overview
          2. Probabilities of Events Involving A and/or B
          3. Understanding and Applying the Rules of Probability
          4. Recognizing Independence in Multiple Events
          5. Including Mutually Exclusive Events
          6. Distinguishing Independent from Mutually Exclusive Events
          7. Avoiding Probability Misconceptions
          8. Predictions Using Probability
        2. Chapter 9: Random Variables and the Binomial Distribution
          1. Defining a Random Variable
          2. Identifying a Binomial
          3. Finding Binomial Probabilities Using a Formula
          4. Finding Probabilities Using the Binomial Table
          5. Checking Out the Mean and Standard Deviation of the Binomial
        3. Chapter 10: The Normal Distribution
          1. Exploring the Basics of the Normal Distribution
          2. Meeting the Standard Normal (<em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:ibooks="http://vocabulary.itunes.apple.com/rdf/ibooks/vocabulary-extensions-1.0">Z</em>-) Distribution-) Distribution
          3. Finding Probabilities for a Normal Distribution
          4. Knowing Where You Stand with Percentiles
          5. Finding <em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:ibooks="http://vocabulary.itunes.apple.com/rdf/ibooks/vocabulary-extensions-1.0">X</em> When You Know the Percent When You Know the Percent
          6. Normal Approximation to the Binomial
        4. Chapter 11: The t-Distribution
          1. Basics of the <em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:ibooks="http://vocabulary.itunes.apple.com/rdf/ibooks/vocabulary-extensions-1.0">t</em>-Distribution-Distribution
          2. Using the <em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" xmlns:m="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:ibooks="http://vocabulary.itunes.apple.com/rdf/ibooks/vocabulary-extensions-1.0">t</em>-Table-Table
          3. Studying Behavior Using the t-Table
        5. Chapter 12: Sampling Distributions and the Central Limit Theorem
          1. Defining a Sampling Distribution
          2. The Mean of a Sampling Distribution
          3. Measuring Standard Error
          4. Looking at the Shape of a Sampling Distribution
          5. Finding Probabilities for the Sample Mean
          6. The Sampling Distribution of the Sample Proportion
          7. Finding Probabilities for the Sample Proportion
      6. Part IV: Guesstimating and Hypothesizing with Confidence
        1. Chapter 13: Leaving Room for a Margin of Error
          1. Seeing the Importance of That Plus or Minus
          2. Finding the Margin of Error: A General Formula
          3. Determining the Impact of Sample Size
        2. Chapter 14: Confidence Intervals: Making Your Best Guesstimate
          1. Not All Estimates Are Created Equal
          2. Linking a Statistic to a Parameter
          3. Getting with the Jargon
          4. Interpreting Results with Confidence
          5. Zooming In on Width
          6. Choosing a Confidence Level
          7. Factoring In the Sample Size
          8. Counting On Population Variability
          9. Calculating a Confidence Interval for a Population Mean
          10. Figuring Out What Sample Size You Need
          11. Determining the Confidence Interval for One Population Proportion
          12. Creating a Confidence Interval for the Difference of Two Means
          13. Estimating the Difference of Two Proportions
          14. Spotting Misleading Confidence Intervals
        3. Chapter 15: Claims, Tests, and Conclusions
          1. Setting Up the Hypotheses
          2. Gathering Good Evidence (Data)
          3. Compiling the Evidence: The Test Statistic
          4. Weighing the Evidence and Making Decisions: p-Values
          5. Making Conclusions
          6. Assessing the Chance of a Wrong Decision
        4. Chapter 16: Commonly Used Hypothesis Tests: Formulas and Examples
          1. Testing One Population Mean
          2. Handling Small Samples and Unknown Standard Deviations: The t-Test
          3. Testing One Population Proportion
          4. Comparing Two (Independent) Population Averages
          5. Testing for an Average Difference (The Paired t-Test)
          6. Comparing Two Population Proportions
      7. Part V: Statistical Studies and the Hunt for a Meaningful Relationship
        1. Chapter 17: Polls, Polls, and More Polls
          1. Recognizing the Impact of Polls
          2. Behind the Scenes: The Ins and Outs of Surveys
        2. Chapter 18: Experiments: Medical Breakthroughs or Misleading Results?
          1. Boiling Down the Basics of Studies
          2. Designing a Good Experiment
          3. Interpreting Experiment Results
        3. Chapter 19: Looking for Links: Correlation and Regression
          1. Picturing a Relationship with a Scatterplot
          2. Quantifying Linear Relationships Using the Correlation
          3. Working with Linear Regression
          4. Calculating the regression line
          5. Making Proper Predictions
          6. Explaining the Relationship: Correlation versus Cause and Effect
        4. Chapter 20: Two-Way Tables and Independence
          1. Organizing a Two-Way Table
          2. Interpreting Two-Way Tables
          3. Checking Independence and Describing Dependence
          4. Cautiously Interpreting Results
      8. Part VI: The Part of Tens
        1. Chapter 21: Ten Tips for the Statistically Savvy Sleuth
          1. Pinpoint Misleading Graphs
          2. Uncover Biased Data
          3. Search for a Margin of Error
          4. Identify NonRandom Samples
          5. Sniff Out Missing Sample Sizes
          6. Detect Misinterpreted Correlations
          7. Reveal Confounding Variables
          8. Inspect the Numbers
          9. Report Selective Reporting
          10. Expose the Anecdote
        2. Chapter 22: Ten Surefire Exam Score Boosters
          1. Know What You Don’t Know, and then Do Something about It
          2. Avoid “Yeah-Yeah” Traps
          3. Make Friends with Formulas
          4. Make an “If-Then-How” Chart
          5. Figure Out What the Question Is Asking
          6. Label What You’re Given
          7. Draw a Picture
          8. Make the Connection and Solve the Problem
          9. Do the Math — Twice
          10. Analyze Your Answers
      9. Appendix: Tables for Reference
        1. The Z-Table
        2. The t-Table
        3. The Binomial Table
      10. About the Author
      11. Cheat Sheet
      12. Connect with Dummies
      13. End User License Agreement