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TV Scenic Design, 2nd Edition

Book Description

TV Scenic Design is a comprehensive resource for aspiring and practicing set designers. Summarizing the principles and practices of scenic design, it details design approaches, structures, and staging methods.

TV Scenic Design is a comprehensive resource for aspiring and practicing set designers. Summarizing the principles and practices of scenic design, it details design approaches, structures, and staging methods.

The information contained in the book can be applied to a variety of design situations, from campus or network TV studios, to exhibitions, audio-visual presentations or window displays.

Whatever the scale, space or budget, the methods described in TV Scenic Design will ensure professional results. Now expanded to cover 'virtual' set design, this new edition continues to be an invaluable aid to anyone involved in creating effective sets.

Contents:
The background of design * The basics of design organization * Scenic construction * Staging techniques * Staging practices * Shoestring staging * Scenic effect * Electronic reality * Scenic operation * The designer on location * Controlling the tone and color * Lighting and the designer * glossary * Index

Gerald Millerson's books on television and video have been acknowledged as among the best ever published. His other titles for Focal Press are Video Production Handbook, The Technique of Television Production, The Technique of Lighting for Television and Film and, in the Media Manual series, Effective TV Production and Video Camera Techniques.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Dedication
  4. Title Page
  5. Copyright Page
  6. Table of Contents
  7. Preface to second edition
  8. Preface to first edition
    1. What is this book all about?
    2. Who is this book written for?
    3. How can the book help me?
  9. Acknowledgements
  10. 1 The background of design
    1. 1.1 The illusion of reality
    2. 1.2 The designer's craft
    3. 1.3 The settings...
    4. 1.4 ...and the staging
    5. 1.5 Is it appropriate?
    6. Production techniques and the designer
    7. 1.6 What does the camera reveal?
    8. 1.7 How are the cameras to be used?
    9. 1.8 Advance warning
    10. 1.9 The program's purpose
    11. 1.10 Economics
    12. 1.11 Time scale
    13. 1.12 Studio space
  11. 2 The basics of design organization
    1. 2.1 Practical design
    2. 2.2 'Off-the-cuff' design
    3. 2.3 Design preliminaries
    4. 2.4 The source of inspiration
    5. Planning
    6. 2.5 Scale of production
    7. 2.6 Production conditions
    8. 2.7 Construction
    9. 2.8 Action
    10. 2.9 Special effects
    11. 2.10 Graphics
    12. 2.11 The scale plan
    13. 2.12 The studio plan
    14. 2.13 Safety lanes
    15. 2.14 Elevations
    16. 2.15 Scale model
    17. 2.16 The preliminary plan
    18. 2.17 The production planning meeting
    19. 2.18 Major productions
    20. 2.19 Pre-studio rehearsals
    21. 2.20 The studio setting period
    22. 2.21 Lighting the setting
    23. 2.22 Rigging the lamps
    24. 2.23 Camera rehearsals
    25. 2.24 The designer during rehearsal
    26. Methods of production
    27. 2.25 'Live' and taped production
    28. 2.26 No rehearsal
    29. 2.27 Stop-start rehearsal
    30. 2.28 Stop-start and dress rehearsals
    31. 2.29 'Rehearse/record'
    32. 2.30 Retakes and continuity
    33. 2.31 Clearing the studio
  12. 3 Scenic construction
    1. The cyclorama
    2. 3.1 The 'eye'
    3. 3.2 Materials
    4. 3.3 Size
    5. 3.4 Hanging the eye
    6. 3.5 Colors
    7. 3.6 Paper cycloramas
    8. 3.7 Hardwall cycloramas
    9. Ground rows
    10. 3.8 The floor join
    11. 3.9 Cove units
    12. 3.10 Scenic planes
    13. 3.11 Cyc cloths
    14. Flats
    15. 3.12 The basic unit
    16. 3.13 Softwall units
    17. 3.14 Hardwall units
    18. 3.15 Stock flats
    19. 3.16 Frame construction
    20. 3.17 Flat heights
    21. 3.18 Flat width
    22. 3.19 Hardware
    23. 3.20 Surface finish
    24. Surface formation
    25. 3.21 Illusion through paint
    26. 3.22 Surface coverings
    27. 3.23 Attached contours
    28. 3.24 Expanded polystyrene/styrofoam/jabolite
    29. 3.25 Shell moldings
    30. 3.26 Contoured flats/plugs
    31. 3.27 Door flats
    32. 3.28 Window flats
    33. 3.29 Single and double cladding
    34. 3.30 Dummy features
    35. Set pieces
    36. 3.31 Arches
    37. 3.32 Buttresses and pilasters
    38. 3.33 Beams
    39. 3.34 Columns and pillars
    40. Raised areas
    41. 3.35 Blocks/step blocks/apple boxes/risers
    42. 3.36 Platforms/parallels/rostra/risers
    43. 3.37 Stairs
    44. 3.38 Getaway steps/offstage steps
    45. 3.39 Ramps
    46. 3.40 Wagons
    47. Using drapes
    48. 3.41 Draperies
    49. 3.42 Supporting drapes
    50. 3.43 Auxiliary drapes
    51. 3.44 Choosing draperies
    52. 3.45 Wear and tear
    53. 3.46 Decorative screens and panels
    54. 3.47 Flexible screens
    55. 3.48 Cut-outs/profiles
    56. Pictorial backgrounds
    57. 3.49 Backdrop/painted cloth
    58. 3.50 Photomurals/photo blow-ups
    59. 3.51 Adjusting the background
    60. 3.52 Re-using the background
    61. The studio floor
    62. 3.53 Floor care
    63. 3.54 Floor treatment
    64. 3.55 Floor painting
    65. 3.56 Hand painting
    66. 3.57 Adhesive patterns
    67. 3.58 Floor panels
    68. 3.59 Floor cloths
    69. 3.60 Scattering
    70. 3.61 Substitute surfaces
    71. 3.62 Rugs, mats, and carpets
    72. Floor light-patterns
    73. 3.63 Opportunities and methods
    74. 3.64 Direct patterns
    75. 3.65 Cast shadows
    76. 3.66 Projected light-patterns
    77. 3.67 Problems
    78. Ceilings
    79. 3.68 Frustrations
    80. 3.69 The central light-fitting
    81. 3.70 The need for a ceiling
    82. 3.71 Complete ceilings
    83. 3.72 Partial ceilings
    84. 3.73 Cutting pieces
    85. 3.74 Substitution
    86. Greenery
    87. 3.75 Living greenery
    88. 3.76 Dead greenery
    89. 3.77 Artificial greenery
    90. 3.78 Mixed methods
    91. 3.79 Street furniture
  13. 4 Staging techniques
    1. 4.1 'Traditional' methods
    2. 4.2 Basic forms of staging
    3. 4.3 Scenic backgrounds
    4. 4.4 Area staging
    5. 4.5 Open sets
    6. 4.6 Desk set-ups
    7. 4.7 Box sets/closed sets
    8. 4.8 Composite settings
    9. 4.9 Audience shows
    10. 4.10 Two-tier staging
    11. 4.11 Enclosed sets
    12. 4.12 Style
    13. 4.13 Basic stylistic approaches
    14. Neutral backgrounds
    15. 4.14 Plain tone
    16. 4.15 Cameo staging
    17. 4.16 Limbo staging
    18. 4.17 Electronically inserted tone
    19. 4.18 Non-associative backgrounds
    20. 4.19 Subject/background contrast
    21. 4.20 Flatly lit backgrounds
    22. 4.21 Vertical shading
    23. 4.22 Background light-patterns
    24. 4.23 Dappled backgrounds
    25. Realistic settings
    26. 4.24 The illusion of reality
    27. 4.25 Forms of realism
    28. 4.26 Accuracy
    29. 4.27 Authenticity
    30. 4.28 Believability
    31. 4.29 The lived-in look
    32. Decorative settings
    33. 4.30 Symbolism
    34. 4.31 Skeletal sets
    35. 4.32 Translucent screens
    36. Using scrim
    37. 4.33 Scrim/scenic gauze
    38. 4.34 'Solid' scrim
    39. 4.35 'Transparent' scrim
    40. 4.36 'Translucent' scrim
    41. 4.37 Scrim eyes
    42. 4.38 Substitute glass
    43. 4.39 Contrast control
    44. 4.40 Painted scrims
    45. Mobile scenic units
    46. 4.41 Wagons
    47. 4.42 Mobile areas
    48. 4.43 Moving vehicles
    49. 4.44 Shots in cars
    50. 4.45 Ships and others
    51. Height and depth in floors
    52. 4.46 Interviews/talks
    53. 4.47 Multi-level settings
    54. 4.48 High ground
    55. 4.49 Heights
    56. 4.50 Holes
    57. Furniture
    58. 4.51 Stock furniture
    59. 4.52 Practical hazards
    60. 4.53 Taming the unruly
    61. Properties
    62. 4.54 What are props?
    63. Set dressing
    64. 4.55 Underlying skills
    65. 4.56 Effectiveness on camera
    66. 4.57 What the audience sees
    67. 4.58 Dressing density
    68. Practical lamps
    69. 4.59 Practical problems
    70. 4.60 Choosing practicals
    71. 4.61 Controlling practicals
    72. Decorative light fittings
    73. 4.62 Illuminated signs
    74. 4.63 Multi-lamp displays
  14. 5 Staging practices
    1. 5.1 Suiting the studio
    2. Studio layout
    3. 5.2 Shooting order
    4. 5.3 Crowded studios
    5. 5.4 Cyciorama limitations
    6. 5.5 Widespread action
    7. 5.6 Studio audience
    8. 5.7 Production control room
    9. 5.8 Sharing the studio
    10. 5.9 Storage
    11. 5.10 Facilities
    12. 5.11 Lighting and layout
    13. 5.12 Proportions and shapes of sets
    14. 5.13 Wall formation
    15. 5.14 Working areas
    16. 5.15 Restricted viewpoints
    17. Backings
    18. 5.16 The need for backings
    19. 5.17 Positioning backings
    20. 5.18 Window treatment
    21. 5.19 Overshoot/shooting off
    22. 5.20 Space saving
    23. 5.21 Elevated cameras
    24. General staging treatment
    25. 5.22 Typical rooms
    26. 5.23 Room layouts
    27. 5.24 Safety
  15. 6 Shoestring staging
    1. 6.1 Biggest is not best
    2. 6.2 The economical approach
    3. 6.3 Low-cost materials
    4. 6.4 Scenic decoration
    5. 6.5 Realistic aims
    6. 6.6 Minimum scenery
    7. Using screens and panels
    8. 6.7 Themes and variations
    9. 6.8 Supporting screens and panels
    10. 6.9 The modular frame
    11. The art of multiple use
    12. 6.10 Multi-use of units
    13. 6.11 Multi-use of settings
    14. 6.12 Partial settings
    15. 6.13 Selected elements
    16. 6.14 Permanent sets
    17. 6.15 Stock sets
  16. 7 Scenic effects
    1. The illusion of space
    2. 7.1 The divided setting
    3. 7.2 Foreground planes
    4. 7.3 Exaggerated perspective
    5. 7.4 Scale change
    6. 7.5 Using mirrors
    7. Water in the studio
    8. 7.6 Facts and figures
    9. 7.7 Water is a hazard!
    10. 7.8 Tanks and pools
    11. 7.9 Rain
    12. 7.10 Fire!
    13. 7.11 Smoke
    14. 7.12 Wind
    15. 7.13 Snow
    16. 7.14 The ancient look
    17. 7.15 Skies - day
    18. 7.16 Skies - night
    19. Scenic projection
    20. 7.17 Front projection
    21. 7.18 Reflex projection
    22. 7.19 Rear projection - patterns
    23. 7.20 Rear projection - pictures
  17. 8 Electronic reality
    1. A substitute for reality
    2. 8.1 Artifice and art
    3. 8.2 Electronic effects
    4. 8.3 Using electronic effects
    5. 8.4 Electronic picture insertion
    6. 8.5 Source selection
    7. 8.6 Advantages of 'electronic scenery'
    8. 8.7 So why aren't they widely used?
    9. Simple matting
    10. 8.8 The special effects generator
    11. 8.9 Luminance keying (inlay)
    12. Chroma key (overlay)
    13. 8.10 The principles
    14. 8.11 Chroma key mechanics
    15. 8.12 Check the chroma key area
    16. 8.13 Practical problems
    17. Virtual sets
    18. 8.14 The principles
    19. 8.15 Opportunities
    20. 8.16 Digital video effects
  18. 9 Scenic operations
    1. The studio
    2. 9.1 The flies
    3. 9.2 Hoisting scenery
    4. 9.3 Wall platform
    5. 9.4 Studio walls
    6. 9.5 The studio floor
    7. 9.6 Studio ventilation
    8. 9.7 Scenic progress
    9. 9.8 Scenic support
    10. Setting flats
    11. 9.9 Fastenings for flats
    12. 9.10 Lashing
    13. 9.11 Stage brace
    14. 9.12 Jacks
    15. 9.13 Stabilizing scenery
    16. 9.14 Rope and knots
    17. 9.15 Tubular bars
    18. 9.16 Rigging the eye
    19. 9.17 Suspending backdrops
    20. Setting up scenery
    21. 9.18 Preliminaries
    22. 9.19 Setting priorities
    23. 9.20 Building sets
    24. 9.21 Handling scenery
    25. 9.22 Lifting
    26. 9.23 Disguising joins
    27. 9.24 Set-dressing mechanics
    28. 9.25 Striking the scenery
    29. 9.26 Scenic transport
    30. 9.27 Storage
    31. 9.28 Storage methods
  19. 10 The designer on location
    1. 10.1 Away from the studio
    2. 10.2 Eye and camera
    3. 10.3 Improving an interior
    4. 10.4 Modifying an interior
    5. 10.5 Modifying an exterior
    6. 10.6 Matching location to studio
    7. 10.7 Faking the studio 'exterior'
  20. 11 Controlling the tone and color
    1. Controlling tone
    2. 11.1 Exposure
    3. 11.2 Tonal restriction
    4. 11.3 Reflectance
    5. 11.4 Gray scale
    6. 11.5 Reproduced tones
    7. 11.6 Video basics
    8. 11.7 Black level
    9. 11.8 Gamma
    10. Controlling color
    11. 11.9 Colour impact
    12. 11.10 Compatibility
    13. 11.11 Color fidelity
    14. 11.12 Staging for color
    15. 11.13 Color illusions
  21. 12 Lighting and the designer
    1. 12.1 Why light the scene?
    2. 12.2 Lighting aims
    3. 12.3 What lighting can do
    4. Tone, form, and texture
    5. 12.4 Tone
    6. 12.5 Surface contours
    7. 12.6 Texture
    8. Basic lighting
    9. 12.7 Light-fittings
    10. 12.8 Lamp suspension
    11. 12.9 Using soft light
    12. 12.10 Using hard light
    13. 12.11 The effect of light direction
    14. 12.12 Three-point lighting
    15. 12.13 Lighting people
    16. 12.14 Background lighting
    17. 12.15 The need for compromise
  22. Glossary
  23. Further reading
  24. Index