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Tubular Combustion

Book Description

Tubular combustors are cylindrical tubes where flame ignition and propagation occur in a spatially confined, highly controlled environment, in a nearly flat, elongated geometry. This allows for some unique advantages where extremely even heat dispersion is required over a large surface while still maintaining fuel efficiency. Tubular combustors also allow for easy flexibility in type of fuel source, allowing for quick changeover to meet various needs and changing fuel pricing. This new addition to the MP sustainable energy series will provide the most up-to-date research on tubular combustion--some of it only now coming out of private proprietary protection. Plentiful examples of current applications along with a good explanation of background theory will offer readers an invaluable guide on this promising energy technology. Highlights include: * An introduction to the theory of tubular flames * The "how to" of maintaining stability of tubular flames through continuous combustion * Examples of both small-scale and large-scale applications like steel making, chemical processing, flexible-fuel-source heaters, efficient boilers, and other similar uses

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyrights
  4. Contents
  5. Preface
  6. 1 INTRODUCTION
    1. 1.1 Background of tubular flame studies
    2. 1.1.1 Aerodynamic straining
    3. 1.1.2 Flame curvature
    4. 1.1.3 Rotation
    5. 1.1.4 Tubular flames
    6. 1.2 Notable tubular flame characteristics
    7. 1.2.1 Thermal advantage
    8. 1.2.2 Aerodynamic advantage
    9. 1.2.3 Lewis number effects
    10. 1.3 Tubular flame studies
    11. 1.3.1 Theoretical studies
    12. 1.3.2 Computational simulations
    13. 1.3.3 Experimental studies
    14. 1.4 Relevant studies
    15. 1.4.1 Tubular non-premixed, diffusion flame studies
    16. 1.4.2 Miniature liquid-film combustors
    17. 1.5 Practical application
    18. 1.5.1 Prototype tubular flame burners
    19. 1.5.2 Rapidly mixed tubular flame combustion
    20. References
  7. 2 THEORY OF TUBULAR FLAMES
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Theoretical formulation
    3. 2.2.1 Model and assumptions
    4. 2.2.2 Fundamental equations
    5. 2.3 Similarity solution
    6. 2.3.1 Introduction
    7. 2.3.2 Equations to be solved
    8. 2.4 Simplified model with one-step kinetics and simple transport properties
    9. 2.4.1 Formulation
    10. 2.4.2 Nondimensional system
    11. 2.4.3 Incompressible flow system
    12. 2.4.4 Flow field
    13. 2.4.5 Concentration and temperature field
    14. 2.4.6 Simplification for Le = 1
    15. 2.4.7 Results for simplified model
    16. 2.4.8 Discussions on results for simplified model
    17. 2.5 Effects of variable density
    18. 2.5.1 Model and assumptions
    19. 2.5.2 Comparison with incompressible solutions
    20. 2.5.3 Effects of injection velocity
    21. 2.5.4 Effects of lewis number
    22. 2.5.5 Discussions on the effects of variable density
    23. 2.6 Asymptotic analysis
    24. 2.6.1 Model and assumptions
    25. 2.6.2 Nondimensional system
    26. 2.6.3 Asymptotic analysis
    27. 2.6.4 Approximate solutions
    28. 2.6.5 Response curves
    29. 2.6.6 Extinction conditions
    30. 2.6.7 Numerical example
    31. 2.6.8 Discussions
    32. 2.6.9 Some concluding remarks
    33. 2.7 Numerical study with full kinetics and exact transport properties
    34. 2.7.1 Introduction
    35. 2.7.2 Model and equations
    36. 2.7.3 Reaction mechanism and transport properties
    37. 2.7.4 Results and discussions
    38. 2.7.5 Concluding remarks
    39. 2.8 Final conclusions
    40. References
  8. 3 MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION AND COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATION OF TUBULAR FLAMES
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Literature overview
    3. 3.3 Mathematical formulation
    4. 3.3.1 Similarity form
    5. 3.3.2 Radial injection
    6. 3.3.3 Tangential injection
    7. 3.3.4 Practical considerations
    8. 3.3.5 Computational procedure
    9. 3.4 Model validation
    10. 3.4.1 Tubular flame with a radial inlet flow
    11. 3.4.2 Swirling tubular flame with a single inlet slot
    12. 3.5 Flame structure and pressure diffusion
    13. 3.5.1 Premixed propane-air flames
    14. 3.5.2 Premixed methane-air flames
    15. 3.5.3 Summary of pressure diffusion
    16. 3.6 Potential technology applications
    17. 3.7 Summary and conclusions
    18. References
  9. 4 RAMAN SPECTROSCOPIC MEASUREMENTS OF TUBULAR FLAMES
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Raman scattering technique
    3. 4.3 Tubular flame burner
    4. 4.4 Raman scattering measurements in tubular flames
    5. 4.4.1 Hydrogen-air tubular flames
    6. 4.4.2 Methane-air tubular flames
    7. 4.4.3 Propane-air tubular flames
    8. 4.5 Cellular tubular flames
    9. 4.5.1 Instabilities in tubular flames
    10. 4.5.2 Raman scattering measurements in cellular tubular flames
    11. References
  10. 5 NON-PREMLXED TUBULAR FLAMES
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Numerical study of the non-premixed tubular flames
    3. 5.3 Non-premixed opposed-flow tubular burner
    4. 5.4 Raman scattering measurements in non-premixed tubular flames
    5. 5.4.1 Hydrogen / Air non-premixed tubular flames
    6. 5.4.2 Hydrocarbon-air non-premixed tubular flames
    7. 5.5 Cellular instabilities in non-premixed tubular flames
    8. 5.5.1 Cellular instabilities in diffusion flames
    9. 5.5.2 Cellular formation and extinction in non-premixed tubular flames
    10. References
  11. 6 TUBULAR FLAME CHARACTERISTICS OF MINIATURE LIQUID FILM COMBUSTORS
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Brief review of some key features of a tubular flame
    3. 6.3 Review of the key features of a fuel film combustor flame
    4. 6.4 Examples of tubular flame behaviors in a fuel film combustor
    5. 6.4.1 Original design
    6. 6.4.2 Secondary air injection
    7. 6.4.3 Swirler design and tubular flame
    8. 6.5 Concluding remarks
    9. References
  12. 7 SMALL-SCALE APPLICATIONS
    1. 7.1. Introduction
    2. 7.2. Flame quenching in a narrow channel
    3. 7.2.1 Flame quenching in a nonrotating flow field
    4. 7.2.2 Advantages using small-scale tubular flame burners
    5. 7.2.3 Tubular flame in a small-diameter tube
    6. 7.2.4 Effects of tube size on the tubular flame
    7. 7.2.5 Critical tube diameter for a rotating flow field
    8. 7.3 Development of small power sources using a tubular flame
    9. References
  13. 8 LARGE-SCALE APPLICATIONS
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.1.1 Classification
    3. 8.1.2 Flame diameter and length
    4. 8.1.3 Rapidly mixed tubular flame combustion
    5. 8.2 Wide flammable range
    6. 8.2.1 BFG burners
    7. 8.3 Fuel diversity
    8. 8.3.1 Gaseous fuels
    9. 8.3.2 Liquid fuels
    10. 8.3.3 Solid fuels
    11. 8.4 Compactness
    12. 8.4.1 Fuel-processing system for polymer electrolyte fuel cell
    13. 8.4.2 Hollow fastening bolt
    14. 8.4.3 Superheated steam generator
    15. 8.5 Geometry
    16. 8.5.1 Flame stabilization
    17. 8.5.2 Heating process
    18. 8.5.3 Stirling engine
    19. References
  14. INDEX
  15. Ad Page
  16. Backcover