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Transport Properties of Concrete

Book Description

Transport Properties of Concrete covers how to measure the ability of ions and fluids to move through concrete material, and how to use the results to model performance. These transport properties largely determine the durability of concrete and of steel embedded within it, as well as the effectiveness of structures such as landfill containment barriers.

The book begins by explaining in detail what transport properties are and how to write computer models for transport processes. Early chapters present and explain computer models written in basic code. Coverage then proceeds to a wide range of tests for the transport properties of concrete, and methods for calculating the values for these properties from the test results using analytical and numerical models. The final chapters then show how the values obtained can be used to predict the durability of reinforced concrete, to model the effect of gas pressure, and to model waste containment structures. A number of practical examples are given, in which the calculations and computer models have been applied to real experimental data.

Transport Properties of Concrete provides a comprehensive examination of the subject, and will be of use to all concerned with the durability and effectiveness of concrete structures.



  • Provides a detailed understanding of the various transport mechanisms that take place during testing in concrete
  • Shows how to obtain fundamental transport properties

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Author contact details
  5. Woodhead Publishing Series in Civil and Structural Engineering
  6. Introduction
    1. The fundamental equations
    2. Computer codes
    3. Structure of this book
    4. Experimental data
    5. Summary of contents
    6. References
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. 1. The transport properties of concrete and the equations that describe them
    1. Abstract:
    2. 1.1 Introduction
    3. 1.2 The transport processes
    4. 1.3 Processes which increase or reduce the transport
    5. 1.4 Conclusions
    6. 1.5 References
  9. 2. Computer models to predict the transport processes in concrete
    1. Abstract:
    2. 2.1 Introduction
    3. 2.2 Expressing the basic equations as computer code
    4. 2.3 Other elements of the code
    5. 2.4 Example: calculations for a waste containment barrier
    6. 2.5 Conclusions
    7. 2.6 Reference
  10. 3. Surface tests to determine transport properties of concrete – I: the tests
    1. Abstract:
    2. 3.1 Introduction
    3. 3.2 The initial surface absorption test (ISAT)
    4. 3.3 The Figg air permeation index
    5. 3.4 Other tests
    6. 3.5 Vacuum preconditioning: a development of the ISAT test
    7. 3.6 Vacuum preconditioning for other tests
    8. 3.7 Conclusions
    9. 3.7 References
  11. 4. Surface tests to determine transport properties of concrete – II: analytical models to calculate permeability
    1. Abstract:
    2. 4.1 Introduction
    3. 4.2 Additional tests
    4. 4.3 Modelling of the absorption tests
    5. 4.4 Experimental testing for absorption
    6. 4.5 Tests using a vacuum to measure air flow
    7. 4.6 The choice of test for practical applications
    8. 4.7 Conclusions
    9. 4.8 References
  12. 5. Surface tests to determine transport properties of concrete – III: measuring gas permeability
    1. Abstract:
    2. 5.1 Introduction
    3. 5.2 Theoretical analysis
    4. 5.3 Investigation of methods for sealing the drilled holes
    5. 5.4 Determination of pressure decay profile
    6. 5.5 Comparison of <em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">in situ</em> test methods test methods
    7. 5.6 Conclusions
    8. 5.7 References
  13. 6. Measurements of gas migration in concrete
    1. Abstract:
    2. 6.1 Introduction
    3. 6.2 Experimental method
    4. 6.3 Analysis of experimental data
    5. 6.4 Results for gas permeability of concrete
    6. 6.5 Comparison with gas permeability of grouts
    7. 6.6 The effect of interfaces on gas permeability
    8. 6.7 Discussion
    9. 6.8 Conclusions
    10. 6.9 Reference
  14. 7. Water vapour and liquid permeability measurements in concrete
    1. Abstract
    2. 7.1 Introduction
    3. 7.2 Experimental methods
    4. 7.3 Methods of analysis of results
    5. 7.4 Results and discussion
    6. 7.5 Conclusions
    7. 7.6 References
  15. 8. Measurement of porosity as a predictor of the transport properties of concrete
    1. Abstract:
    2. 8.1 Introduction
    3. 8.2 Sample preparation and testing programme
    4. 8.3 Tests for porosity
    5. 8.4 Tests for properties controlled by transport
    6. 8.5 Oxygen transport
    7. 8.6 Vapour transport
    8. 8.7 Results and discussion
    9. 8.8 Conclusions
    10. 8.9 References
  16. 9. Factors affecting the measurement of the permeability of concrete
    1. Abstract:
    2. 9.1 Introduction
    3. 9.2 Experimental programme
    4. 9.3 Results
    5. 9.4 Discussion
    6. 9.5 Conclusions
    7. 9.6 References
  17. 10. Electrical tests to analyse the transport properties of concrete – I: modelling diffusion and electromigration
    1. Abstract
    2. 10.1 Introduction
    3. 10.2 The ASTM C1202 test and the salt bridge
    4. 10.3 The physical processes
    5. 10.4 Analytical solutions
    6. 10.5 The computer model
    7. 10.6 Initial experimental validation
    8. 10.7 Full model validation
    9. 10.8 Conclusions
    10. 10.9 References
  18. 11. Electrical tests to analyse the transport properties of concrete – II: using a neural network model to derive diffusion coefficients
    1. Abstract:
    2. 11.1 Introduction
    3. 11.2 Experimental method
    4. 11.3 Neural network optimisation model
    5. 11.4 Results and discussion
    6. 11.5 Conclusions
    7. 11.6 References
  19. 12. Electrical tests to analyse the fundamental transport properties of concrete – III: modelling tests without applied voltages
    1. Abstract:
    2. 12.1 Introduction
    3. 12.2 Test methods
    4. 12.3 The analytical solution
    5. 12.4 Computer modelling – theoretical background
    6. 12.5 Experimental programme
    7. 12.6 Results and discussion
    8. 12.7 Conclusions
    9. 12.8 References
  20. 13. Applications using measured values of the transport properties of concrete I: predicting the durability of reinforced concrete
    1. Abstract
    2. 13.1 Introduction
    3. 13.2 Controlling parameters for concrete durability
    4. 13.3 Measuring corrosion of reinforcement
    5. 13.4 Correlating transport measurements with corrosion
    6. 13.5 Predictive models for corrosion
    7. 13.6 Conclusions
    8. 13.7 References
  21. 14. Applications using measured values of the transport properties of concrete II: modelling the effect of gas pressure
    1. Abstract:
    2. 14.1 Introduction
    3. 14.2 Background: mechanisms of gas migration
    4. 14.3 The effects of stress generation in cementitious materials
    5. 14.4 Sensitivity to material properties and conditions
    6. 14.5 Behaviour in a repository
    7. 14.6 Conclusions
    8. 14.7 References
  22. 15. Applications using measured values of the transport properties of concrete – III: predicting the transport of liquids through concrete barriers for waste containment
    1. Abstract:
    2. 15.1 Introduction
    3. 15.2 The computer model
    4. 15.3 Laboratory testing
    5. 15.4 Site trials
    6. 15.5 Reducing transport in cracked concrete
    7. 15.6 Conclusions
    8. 15.7 References
  23. Conclusions, recommendations and guidance for measuring transport properties of concrete
    1. The state of the art
    2. Recommendations and guidance
  24. Appendix 1: List of papers for the experimental data and derivations
  25. Appendix 2: Notation and abbreviations
    1. Notation
    2. Abbreviations
  26. Index