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Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles (Includes Unit Operations) Fourth Edition by Christie John Geankoplis

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9.11. FREEZE-DRYING OF BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS

9.11A. Introduction

Certain foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and biological materials, which may not be heated even to moderate temperatures in ordinary drying, may be freeze-dried. The substance to be dried is usually frozen by exposure to very cold air. In freeze-drying, the water is removed as a vapor by sublimation from the frozen material in a vacuum chamber. After the moisture sublimes to a vapor, it is removed by mechanical vacuum pumps or steam jet ejectors.

As a rule, freeze-drying produces the highest-quality food product obtainable by any drying method. A prominent factor is the structural rigidity afforded by the frozen substance when sublimation occurs. This prevents collapse of the remaining ...

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