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Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles (Includes Unit Operations) Fourth Edition by Christie John Geankoplis

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8.2. TYPES OF EVAPORATION EQUIPMENT AND OPERATION METHODS

8.2A. General Types of Evaporators

In evaporation, heat is added to a solution to vaporize the solvent, which is usually water. The heat is generally provided by the condensation of a vapor such as steam on one side of a metal surface, with the evaporating liquid on the other side. The type of equipment used depends primarily on the configuration of the heat-transfer surface and on the means employed to provide agitation or circulation of the liquid. The general types of equipment are discussed below.

1. Open kettle or pan

The simplest evaporator consists of an open pan or kettle in which the liquid is boiled. The heat is supplied by condensation of steam in a jacket or in coils immersed ...

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