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Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles (Includes Unit Operations) Fourth Edition by Christie John Geankoplis

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4.7. NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER

4.7A. Introduction

Natural convection heat transfer occurs when a solid surface is in contact with a gas or liquid which is at a different temperature from the surface. Density differences in the fluid arising from the heating process provide the buoyancy force required to move the fluid. Free or natural convection is observed as a result of the motion of the fluid. An example of heat transfer by natural convection is a hot radiator used for heating a room. Cold air encountering the radiator is heated and rises in natural convection because of buoyancy forces. The theoretical derivation of equations for natural convection heat-transfer coefficients requires the solution of motion and energy equations.

An ...

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