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Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles (Includes Unit Operations) Fourth Edition by Christie John Geankoplis

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2.4. VISCOSITY OF FLUIDS

2.4A. Newton's Law and Viscosity

When a fluid is flowing through a closed channel such as a pipe or between two flat plates, either of two types of flow may occur, depending on the velocity of this fluid. At low velocities the fluid tends to flow without lateral mixing, and adjacent layers slide past one another like playing cards. There are no cross currents perpendicular to the direction of flow, nor eddies or swirls of fluid. This regime or type of flow is called laminar flow. At higher velocities eddies form, which leads to lateral mixing. This is called turbulent flow. The discussion in this section is limited to laminar flow.

A fluid can be distinguished from a solid in this discussion of viscosity by its behavior ...

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